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45 Chapter 7 Zoning Activities Related to Freight Facilities and Corridors There are many zoning tools that cities are already utilizing Overview of Zoning Approaches that can aid in creating a sensible development environment for residential and other developments that are sensitive to There are the following three main types of zoning: noise, vibration, or safety, or for development that is adjacent to freight facilities and corridors. 1. Euclidian zoning, which strictly separates out the uses Across the United States, cities and counties (if they are of land. This is the most common form of zoning in the United States and is probably the most intuitive and easy- authorized) enact zoning rules to regulate how development to-interpret type of zoning. In many instances, the elements activities will be carried out within their territorial jurisdictions. under this type of zoning are cumulative. Figure 7-1 provides According to New York City an example of Euclidian zoning. Zoning shapes the city. Zoning determines the size and use of 2. Performance zoning, which is a goal-oriented system that buildings, where they are located and, in large measure, the often will use "points." Performance zoning gives planning densities of the city's diverse neighborhoods. Along with the city's staff a fair amount of latitude in how they conduct activities, power to budget, tax, and condemn property, zoning is a key tool and it is not strictly focused on uses, but rather on output. for carrying out planning policy (New York City Department of This type of zoning is rare in the United States. Figure 7-2 City Planning 2010). provides an example of performance zoning. 3. Form-based codes, which are a new type of zoning that A number of factors have contributed to deficiencies in zon- has been promoted over the past 20 years by New Urban- ing, lot design, and the development of land uses that should ist planners. This type of zoning uses transects and pattern be considered "sensitive" when they are placed in proximity books, and has a unified code and a regulating plan. to freight corridors and facilities. These include the following: Similar to performance zoning, the focus is not on use but on form. This type of zoning has gained traction in the The historical lack of interaction between the freight United States, with Miami, Florida, and the small town of industry and local and state planning entities; Jamestown, Rhode Island, adopting the use of form-based The lack of education about freight facilities, their needs, code in late 2009 (Lydon 2009). Figure 7-3 provides an and potential impacts from their activities; and example of form-based codes. The role of developers in projects that do not take freight activities into account. The purpose of zoning is to protect and promote the public health, safety, and general welfare of a jurisdiction. Zoning For many years, the freight industry was not involved in also is utilized to implement the policies of the general plan, land-use planning decision meetings and did not regularly comprehensive plan, and other long-range plans by classifying interact with local and state planning organizations. More- and regulating land use and structures in specific areas. For over, many planners have not had adequate training on example, Pasadena, California, notes that for the purpose of freight issues in their formal education. By not properly con- implementing its comprehensive plan, it is the intent of the sidering freight issues, the developer community also could city's zoning code to be considered the third leg of the stool contributing to the problem of incompatible land uses in proximity to freight Provide standards for the orderly development of the city corridors and facilities. and continue a stable land-use pattern;

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46 Figure 7-1. Euclidian zoning (Bucks County, Pennsylvania 1987). Figure 7-2. Performance zoning (City of Shelbyville, Indiana 2004).

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47 Figure 7-3. Form-based codes (Center for Applied Transect Studies).