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48 Conserve and protect the historical integrity of neighbor- Any parking requirements; and hoods; Other features that may be specifically applicable to the dif- Maintain and protect the value of property; ferent types of districts (City of Pasadena, California 2005b). Ensure the provision of adequate open space for light, air, and fire safety; There are many zoning elements that cities use to accom- Promote the economic stability of existing land uses that modate residential and other developments that are sensitive conform to the general plan and protect them from intru- to freight externalities such as noise, light, vibration, and sions of harmful or inharmonious land uses; safety issues. States with strong building codes (e.g., California, Ensure compatibility between land uses; and Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New York) also use Encourage a pedestrian-friendly community by promoting these as a mechanism to reduce noise and vibration where a mix of land uses and pedestrian-oriented development properties may be situated by high-volume freight corridors in commercial areas (City of Pasadena, California 2005a). or facilities. In many instances, airport land-use plans have developed construction requirements to achieve sound-level Under Pasadena's zoning code, most jurisdictions are divided reduction and have produced guidebooks and other useful into basic zoning districts. These usually are residential (R), instructional material to assist the city as they issue develop- commercial (C), manufacturing (M), industrial (I), public ment permits. and semi-public use (PS), agricultural (A), and temporary Table 7-1 provides recommended zoning approaches for uses (T). Generally, these districts are then divided into various dealing with freight issues. The following sections provide differing density districts. The zoning districts typically regulate brief discussions of these approaches. More detailed discussions can be found on the EnvisionFreight website at http://www. Permitted uses listed in one or more of the use groups; EnvisionFreight.com/tools/default.aspx?id=zoning. The size of the building in relation to the size of the zoning lot, which is commonly called the floor area ratio (FAR); Cluster Zoning For residential uses, the number of dwelling units that will be permitted, open space requirements for the lot, and the Cluster zoning (sometimes called residential cluster devel- maximum amount of the lot that can be covered by a build- opment) is a method of land development in which structures ing (called lot coverage); are grouped together on a site to save the remaining land for The distance between the building on the lot and its front, common open space, often for conservation, recreation, side, and rear lot lines; and public uses. Cluster zoning could also be used as a tool Table 7-1. Recommended zoning approaches for accommodating freight activities. Zoning Activity Examples Lot depth and width Anaheim, CA American Canyon, CA Bakersfield, CA Buffer areas and non-access easements Portland, OR Slinger, WI Juneau, AK Wheaton, IL Long Lake, MN Empire, WI Container storage Will County, IL Restricting freight activity hours Pasadena, CA Peoria, AZ Delineating truck routes San Francisco, CA Hazardous material routing Boston, MA Overlay zones Baltimore, MD Benton, OR Jacksonville, Duval County, FL Portland, OR Urban noise level information and zoning Pasadena, CA restrictions Noise abatement design criteria The Crossings at Anaheim, CA Airport noise restrictions Portland, OR Airport influence overlay districts and noise Arapahoe County, AZ disclosure form