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49 Source: UT-CTR. Figure 7-4. Residential area adjacent to rail and highway. to create common open space between the freight facility or For example, in 2004, Anaheim, California, enacted Ordi- corridor and residential development and reduce some of the nance 5920, in which single-family residential lots adjacent to nuisance elements that may concern residents. railroad rights-of-way must have a specified minimum depth As an example to show how cluster zoning could improve a as follows: site where residential development is close to a shared freight/ Single-family residential lots adjacent to all arterial highways ... commuter rail line and highway, see Figures 7-4 and 7-5. or railroad rights-of-way shall have a minimum depth of one These figures highlight how cluster zoning could have created hundred twenty (120) feet and shall not take vehicular access from a buffer area between the right of way and residences. the arterial highway (City of Anaheim 2004). The American Planning Association has a model cluster zon- ing ordinance on their website for cities and counties interested American Canyon, California, requires a 20 percent in utilizing this tool (American Planning Association 2006). increase in depth for lots adjoining state highways or railroads (Title 19 Zoning, Division 2 Zoning District Permitted Uses and Development Standards). Bakersfield, California, (Title 16 Lot Depth Sub-Division, Chapter 16.28 Design Standards) requires that Lot depth is one critical area in which cities can reduce the minimum depth for a lot with a rear yard abutting a free- conflict where residential or other sensitive land uses may way or railroad right-of-way is 120 feet and that the minimum be developed adjacent to freight corridors and facilities. By width for a lot with a side yard abutting a freeway or railroad increasing lot depth beside these rights-of-way, the city can right-of-way is 85 feet on interior lots and 90 feet on corner lots. create an element of buffering between the residential use and the freight activity that may generate noise, vibration, Setback Standards dust, and pollution up to 24 hours a day in many cases. The lot depth increase is either stipulated in actual feet or as a Setback standards are another zoning element for new percentage increase in depth. In some instances, lot depths and infill developments that can reduce conflicts because adjacent to limited-access highways or railroad rights-of-way of the proximity of incompatible land uses between freight also include some type of treatment--for example, the plant- facilities and corridors and non-freight uses. For example, the ing of trees and shrubs in a non-access easement to mitigate California Air Resources Board developed "Air Quality and noise and vibration. Land Use Handbook: A Community Health Perspective," in