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53 railroad, are required to be located at a minimum distance Container Storage Zoning Ordinance of 250 feet from the railroad right-of-way. The avoidance of building minor streets immediately As major intermodal hubs grow, the need for storage of adjacent and parallel to railroad right-of-way. cargo containers also grows. In 2006, it was expected that When a lot within land divisions backs onto the railroad at least another 200 acres would be needed for future cargo container storage in the Joliet Intermodal Center south of right-of-way, then there is a required planting strip (land- Chicago in Will County. In site project development, it was scape bufferyard easement) of at least 35 feet in addition noted that both users of the intermodal facilities and neigh- to the normal lot depth. The planting strip is incorporated bors of the facilities (e.g., residential) would ideally like to into the platted lot but must include the following written see any cargo container facilities located as close as possible restriction on the face of the plat: "Landscape Bufferyard to the intermodal facilities. It was further noted that not only Easement: This strip is reserved for the planting of trees would such a location enhance the efficiency of intermodal and shrubs. The building of structures is prohibited." operations, but it would minimize the negative impacts on (Town of Empire, Wisconsin 2010) surrounding areas (Will County, Illinois 2006). As a consequence, in 2006, Will County developed a model There are many examples of buffer zones being created ordinance for the storage of containers that is designed to around airports, and where airports have purchased property avoid or mitigate conflicts with other land uses and also to create better landing approach zones and reduce the number allows for anticipated future needs for cargo container stor- of properties that are close to the airport. Ports also have age (Will County, Illinois 2006). The model ordinance was created buffer zones through the use of yard re-development expected to serve as a template for governmental units within plans and through the purchase of property. The Port of the county to use as they draft or revise their own ordinances. Panama City in Florida, for example, has some modest prob- The model ordinance also was accompanied by a Cargo lems with encroachment on the east side of the port. There is Container Facility Checklist that could be used by county significant residential development and, for a long time, the staffers. Among other things, the model ordinance addresses port has had a policy of buying out homes on the eastern side typical encroachment issues such as location of facilities, and demolishing houses in order to create a buffer zone. This distances from other land uses, noise and lighting issues, and process has been going on for at least 10 years. The policy screening and landscaping requirements. started with the intention of using these properties for future port expansion. However, as the port continued to develop, it became clear that the highest value for this property was to Restricted Hours for Truck Activities provide a buffer so that future problems with land-use conflicts Other communities also have implemented special hours would not arise. for loading and unloading of trucks. For example, Peoria, Buffer zones are not a perfect solution for every problem. Arizona, has made it unlawful to operate a truck on certain California's Air Resources Board (CARB) reviewed various designated roadways between 9 p.m. and 5 a.m. Violations of options for using "generic buffer zones" around rail yards this ordinance can result in a $250 fine (City of Peoria 2005). and port facilities (Tuck 2004). The California Council for Environmental and Economic Balance (CCEEB), in a review Delineating Truck Routes, Including session for CARB, noted that community residents and busi- Routes for Hazardous Materials nesses have an interest in ensuring that local governments do not create incompatible land uses in the future through Some cities also specify truck routes based on weight, height, today's land-use control practices. CCEEB reviewed the or other community concerns. It should be noted that these option of using buffer zones for different land-use source routes are advisory only and are not regulatory. categories based on worst-case assumptions. CCEEB noted Many of the large ports in the United States have created spe- that determining an appropriate distance limitation in cific programs to reduce conflicts between local communities light of site-specific factors presents multiple challenges and the drayage trucks that access their facilities. For example, and outcomes. Most importantly, using overly generic the Port of Los Angeles requires all of its port drayage service buffer zones around specific land uses based on worst-case concession to demonstrate compliance with truck routes and assumptions can lead to zoning that is more stringent than parking restrictions. Licensed motor carriers (LMCs) that apply required, wastes land, limits tax revenues, and takes land away to become concessionaires from needed social and economic purposes (Tuck 2004). ... shall submit for approval by the Concession Administra- Similar criticisms also were discussed in reviews of Baltimore's tor, an off-street parking plan that includes off-street parking MIZOD. location(s) for all Permitted Trucks. Concessionaire shall ensure