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60 Chapter 8 Mitigation of Conflicts between Freight and Other Land Uses The negative effects of freight-transportation-related services Examples of airport mitigation programs include on nearby land uses include nuisance, health, and safety issues such as air and water pollution, noise, vibration, and · Noise mitigation, light impacts. There are a number of mitigation tools that can · Relocation, and be utilized to (1) reduce the effects of being close to freight · Community noise round tables. facilities and corridors and (2) improve development activity (especially for sensitive land uses) to reduce the potential for Federal Role conflicts to arise. In this chapter, we provide an overview of some mode- FAA governs many aspects of airport activities, including specific mitigation activities for airports, railroads, and ports. the following: In addition to these mode-specific approaches, other tools are commonly used to mitigate or minimize conflicts between · Developing the national airport system plan, freight and other types of land uses including layout and · Airspace authorization, design considerations and hazmat considerations. A more · Air traffic control, detailed discussion of mitigation programs and approaches · Airport certification, can be found on the EnvisionFreight website at http://www. · Aircraft and airline licensing, · Pilot licensing, EnvisionFreight.com/tools/default.aspx?id=mitigation. · Aircraft noise abatement oversight, and · Aircraft safety and security. Airport Mitigation Programs FAA has set standards for noise levels and has programs By far, the most pressing issue that airports face is noise. that can be utilized to redress these issues. Also, FAA has issued Incompatible land uses near airports are a major concern and multiple items of guidance regarding noise mitigation and challenge for all airport operations (freight and passenger). land uses identified as incompatible with airport activities. These challenges are complicated by multiple layers of over- However, in much the same way as is seen across other freight sight and regulation that cover airports juxtaposed with the modes, problems may well arise because the jurisdictional goals of many airport operators, commercial carriers, and responsibility for implementing land-use planning and zon- economic development groups who are often focused on in- ing lies with local jurisdictions that are not necessarily part creasing revenues and maximizing the utility and operation of any noise reduction or abatement program or involved in of the airport. planning activities. The primary responsibility for integrating airport consider- In 1979, the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act ations into land-use planning lies with local jurisdictions. This (49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq.) created the first pilot program where presents difficulties for many airports, because they cannot the federal government funded up to 24 noise control plans a control development in the surrounding communities and year. This was expanded in the 1980s and 1990s, and by the yet are held to account by these communities when airport end of the century, the FAA Airport Improvement Program noise adversely affects nearby uses such as homes, schools, grants totaled over $2.6 billion. The Airport Noise and and churches. Capacity Act of 1990 was another pivotal piece of legislation