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63 as a shortcut, often at great danger to themselves. In many ity to railroad operations. The initiative had four major goals, communities, schools are found on the other side of the as follows: tracks and children will often cross the railroad property as a shortcut. According to FRA, the number of railroad trespass 1. Effectively work together, fatalities first surpassed the number of fatalities at highway 2. Understand one another, rail grade crossings in 1997 and continues to be the leading 3. Develop a consistent dispute resolution model for handling cause of fatalities industrywide. complaints by localities and communities regarding freight FRA has developed model state legislation covering tres- railroad activities, and passing and vandalism on railroad property (U.S. Department 4. Produce materials about freight railroad activities and of Transportation 2010a). FRA also has a compilation of state compatible land uses for local jurisdictions and the general laws and regulations affecting highway rail grade crossings public. (U.S. Department of Transportation 2002). FRA compiled research results in 2007 on trespass on railroad rights of way As part of this initiative, the Proximity Issues website was (U.S. Department of Transportation 2007a). created. It can be found at http://www.proximityissues.ca/ english/index.cfm. The website is primarily focused on pro- viding information to the general public with the purpose Operation Lifesaver of avoiding complaints and potential conflicts, or resolving Operation Lifesaver is a non-profit rail safety education them as best as possible. Since the initiative began and the website was developed, organization, whose purpose is to provide public education Ontario has adopted provincial guidelines and processes programs to prevent collisions, injuries, and fatalities on and for planning that are based on the output of this initiative. around railroad tracks and highway-rail grade crossings. Its British Columbia also has used the initiative's protocols and website can be found at http://oli.org/. Operation Lifesaver's guidelines for issues relating to overpasses and for dealing national office in Alexandria, Virginia, supports state programs, with community issues. and develops videos, educational brochures, and instruc- The proximity initiative is continuing to develop new tools, tional information. There are state coordinators located in review issues, and continue its educational and outreach all 50 states. mission. For example, noise and vibration measurement is Operation Lifesaver began in 1972 as a joint effort between currently being reviewed with the goal of developing specific the Idaho governor's office, the Idaho Peace Officers, and guidelines. Different types of materials for mitigation are also Union Pacific Railroad. A 6-week public awareness cam- being reviewed--for example, the use of a glass sound wall in paign was conducted to promote highway-rail grade crossing Montreal, and different types of "green" walls. The initiative safety. As a result of the program's success, similar programs also continues to conduct extensive outreach, giving presenta- were adopted in Nebraska, Kansas, and Georgia over the tions to local communities to keep the public educated about next 2 years. Operation Lifesaver spread to other states and, railroad proximity issues. in 1986, the national Operation Lifesaver office was created As a consequence of the proximity initiative, the Canadian to help support state efforts and raise national awareness. National and Canadian Pacific Railroads developed rail Operation Lifesaver's volunteer speakers and instructors land-use guidelines. The City of Edmonton also undertook a offer free rail safety education programs in all states. Programs major initiative to amend its zoning code to include a major are conducted for various groups including schools, driver commercial corridor overlay ordinance. education classes, community audiences, professional drivers, law enforcement groups, and emergency responders. The Operation Lifesaver programs are co-sponsored by federal, Port and Waterway state, and local government agencies; highway safety organi- Mitigation Activities zations; and railroads. The needs of waterborne transportation include channels and terminals as well as certain types of support infrastructure, such as tie-ups for tugs and barges, fueling facilities, and ship Canada Proximity Website repair facilities. Unlike other transportation modes, it is In 2003, the Railway Association of Canada (RAC), in col- almost impossible to move these facilities off-site away from laboration with the Federation of Canadian Municipalities the waterfront. Thus, for marine transportation, mitigation (FCM), and the Canadian railroads created an initiative to options usually entail retrofitting an existing facility instead of develop common approaches to the prevention and resolution relocating it, and developing programs that reduce conflicts of issues that arise when people live and work in close proxim- with nearby non-freight activities.