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65 FHWA (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/keep the pollutant effect. This would ideally be placed in a non- down.htm), FTA (http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_ access easement on the freight facility side of the lot. This can Noise_and_Vibration_Manual.pdf), and FRA (http://www. be seen in Figure 8-5. fra.dot.gov/Pages/253.shtml) have all developed noise manuals that discuss the use and costs of sound walls. Design Considerations Figure 8-6 shows a poor residential design layout with the Layout and Design Elements living and dining area facing out onto the freight facility/route In many instances, poor lot orientation is a primary con- area without any buffering or other elements to mitigate for tributor to noise and vibration and other land-use conflicts conflicts that may arise. This property is also situated far back between freight and other uses. Although it is not optimal to on the lot, putting it in close proximity to the freight facility. site multi-family residential, educational, medical, or other Figure 8-7 shows how an optimal layout with the residential institutional type facilities such as schools, daycare facilities, development utilizing similar internal buffering techniques. and elderly residential facilities adjacent to freight facilities, Here, the property places less-used rooms closer to the freight there are options that could be pursued to offset some of the activity, which increases the space and time that noise has to land-use conflicts that arise between freight and other uses. travel, thus reducing decibel levels. The placement of a non- access easement also shifts the property closer to the front lot lines, which again provides a buffering space for decibel levels Lot Layout to be reduced. Often, the placement of residential uses on a lot will lead to residential-freight activity conflicts. Figure 8-4 shows a poor Hazmat Issues lot orientation adjacent to a freight line that could subject the residents to noise, vibration, and possibly pollutant effects. Hazardous materials are solids, gases, and liquids that There are simple steps that can be taken to assist in mitigat- can harm people, animals, property, and the environment. ing conflicts between land use and reducing the opportunities Throughout the United States, hazardous materials are moved for conflicts to arise. For example, shifting units within the lot so by marine vessels, air, rail, and truck. Hazmat chemicals that that they are not placed in such proximity to the freight activity give freight transportation providers the most cause for concern could be an important first step to avoid or eliminate conflict. are the toxic inhalation hazard (TIH) materials. Hazardous The optimal solution for mitigating or avoiding conflicts in cargo is often stored for periods of time in freight terminals, this type of development would require not only garages to rail yards, and port facilities. Poor planning can place residen- be placed to provide a buffer for the noise and vibration, but tial and other highly sensitive uses far too close to facilities also the placement of vegetation that could absorb some of that have hazardous materials. Source: UT-CTR. Figure 8-4. Poor lot orientation.
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66 Source: UT-CTR. Figure 8-5. Optimal lot orientation. Source: UT-CTR. Figure 8-6. Poor residential design layout.
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67 Source: UT-CTR. Figure 8-7. Improved residential design layout accompanied with non-access easement. Hazmat Transportation determine and select routes that pose the least overall risk. The analysis must include 27 risk factors and input provided Federal agencies have issued regulations that require how by state and local governments. Regular safety audits are certain hazardous materials are moved, stored, loaded, and conducted by FRA to ensure compliance by the railroads transloaded. Drivers of hazardous materials are required to (U.S. Department of Transportation 2007b). More informa- undergo background checks and obtain a hazmat endorse- tion regarding hazmat transportation by rail can be found on ment background check by TSA. States and cities have also the Association of American Railroads' site (Association of designated specific highway routes along which hazardous American Railroads 2010). material can be transported. This includes restricting the types Trucks also carry a large portion of hazardous material and combinations (especially in bulk) of hazardous mate- throughout the United States. The U.S.DOT, FMCSA, and the rials that can be transported through tunnels. The National Hazardous Materials Designated, Preferred, and Restricted Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration gov- Routes list was last updated in 2009 (U.S. Department of ern regulations regarding trucking of hazardous materials. One Transportation FMCSA 2009). of the main elements required for trucking is the verification Under the Common Carrier Rule, railroads are required to of truck drivers by TSA, as part of the implementation of the ship hazardous material (U.S. Department of Transportation Patriot Act. The Patriot Act also requires drivers who transport 2008a). However, the make-up, general handling, and loading hazardous materials to have a hazardous materials endorsement of trains carrying hazardous material are strictly regulated The (HME) background check. Port facilities also produce rules that distances between specific hazmat-placarded cars and tanks regulate the transport of hazardous materials in their facilities. along the trains' length are regulated by FRA rules. This is espe- The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, for example, cially the case for loading of Class 1 explosive materials, Class 2 updated its "Redbook" in 2009 regarding the transportation of gases, and poisonous and radioactive materials. Rules also pro- hazardous materials by truckers in tunnel and bridge facilities scribe certain train configurations and how the units are moved that it operates (Port Authority of New York and New Jersey around in the rail yards to make up the trains. Some hazardous 2009a). More information regarding hazmat transportation by materials are not allowed to be transported together under any trucks can be found on the American Trucking Association's circumstances within the same train compilation. website (American Trucking Associations 2011). FRA also has issued regulations requiring railroads to The U.S. Coast Guard is the primary government agency perform comprehensive safety and security risk analysis to responsible for the transportation of hazardous materials
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68 by water. The Maritime Transportation Security Act 2003 The Coast Guard is harmonizing its regulations with the laid down new rules for international ship and port facility International Maritime Organization International Convention security, including implementation of the Transportation for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974 regarding maritime bulk solid Workers Identification Credential (TWIC) Program. This hazardous materials. This will expand the list of solid hazard- issues a tamper-resistant biometric credential to workers who ous materials authorized for bulk transportation by vessel and require unescorted access to secure areas of ports, vessels, and will create special handling procedures for these hazmat cargos. the outer continental shelf facilities. Under 33 CFR 12.19, Air cargo hazmat transportation restrictions apply not just the captain of the port is required to issue permits for each to freight cargo but also to items that passengers and cabin occurrence of handing, loading, discharging, or transporting crew bring onto aircraft. TSA is responsible for the screening dangerous cargo at the waterfront facility. The permit specifies of passengers and air cargo. International treaties also govern the limits, quantity, and isolation and remoteness required to the movement of hazardous materials by air. handle these materials. Figure 8-8 describes the hazmat classes. CLASS CLASS NAME DIVISIONS PLACARD NUMBER 1 Explosiv es 1.1 Mass explosion hazard 1.2 Blast/projection hazard 1.3 Minor blast hazard 1.4 Major fire hazard 1.5 Blasting agents 1.6 Extreme ly insensitive explosiv e 2 Gases 2.1 Flammable gas 2.2 Nonflammable gas 2.3 Poisonous gas 2.4 Oxygen 2.5 Inhalation h azard 3 Flammable 3.1 Flammable Liquids 3.2 Combustive 3.3 Gasoline and fuel oil 4 Flammable 4.1 Flammable solid Solids 4.2 Spontaneously combustible 4.3 Dangerous when wet 5 Oxidizers and 5.1 Oxidizer Organic 5.2 Organ ic peroxide Peroxides 6 Poisons and 6.1 Inhalation h azard Infectious 6.2 Poison Substances 6.3 Tox ic 7 Rad ioactive Any mater ial, or Materials combination, that emits ionizing radiation > 0.002 microcuries per gram 8 Corrosives 8.1 Acids 8.2 A lkali (materials, liquid, or solid that can d issolv e skin, tissue, or corrode certain metals) 9 Miscellan eous Substances that do not fall into other categories Source: Adapted from U.S.DOT, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. Figure 8-8. Hazmat classes.
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69 Facility Siting Considerations different hazardous materials. The applicability of these meth- odologies for any type of development around freight facilities The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was mandated by the Housing Act of 1949 and the or corridors is considered invaluable for planning departments Housing and Urban Development Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. as they develop comprehensive plans and new zoning changes 1441 (a)) to assure that all HUD-assisted projects were located and for developers as they create plans (sub-division or other) in a safe and healthful environment. Sub-part C of 24 CFR that may be in proximity to a freight facility or freight corridor Part 51 provides the regulatory authority for the implemen- that serves hazmat manufacture and delivery. tation of this mandate. As part of the implementation, HUD The 1984 guidebook provides a series of steps for the planner commissioned two extremely useful guidebooks regarding to use to determine an acceptable separation distance between siting of residential projects near hazardous facilities and urban a hazardous facility and residential development. Seven steps development siting with respect to hazardous commercial/ are outlined for data collection and calculation methods. industrial facilities (Rolf Jensen & Associates 1984; U.S. A series of tables also is provided to calculate whether the Department of Housing and Urban Development 1996). proposed development falls within the acceptable distance These HUD guidebooks create and provide useful guidance curves created for multiple types of hazardous materials. to apply a standard method and calculation for determining Figure 8-9 shows the steps involved in conducting a site and establishing an acceptable separation distance (ASD) for evaluation. Source: Adapted from Rolf Jensen & Associates, Urban Development Siting with Respect to Hazardous Commercial/industrial Facilities, 1984. Figure 8-9. Steps to conduct site evaluation review.