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72 Chapter 10 Conclusions The U.S. surface freight transportation network includes Noise pollution, 4,016,741 miles of highways, 94,942 miles of Class I freight Effects of vibration, railroad tracks, 46,474 miles of regional and shortline rail- Safety issues, and road tracks, and 26,000 miles of navigable inland waterways. Congestion. Other important components of the freight transportation network include air freight and pipelines. Some conflicts, such as noise, light, and vibration are Freight-transportation-related services often come into con- common to all of the primary freight modes. Other con- flict with other land uses. These conflicts create, or have the flicts are more specific to particular modes. For example, potential to create, barriers to the efficient provision of freight the potential for dangerous trespass tends to be specific to transportation. Because of the important role of freight trans- railroads. portation in producing products and getting them to their end From the perspective of freight interests, barriers to efficient users, conflicts between freight and other land uses have an freight-transportation-related services are often the result impact on the performance of the U.S. economy and consumer of these conflicts. In this context, barriers can be defined as welfare. These impacts are evident from the fact that, for every impediments to the economically efficient transportation of person in the United States, an average of 11,000 ton-miles of freight due to land-use or policy decisions that create conflicts freight is transported annually. with other land uses. Examples of barriers or interference with The goals of the NCFRP Project 24 research were to freight-transportation-related services resulting from conflicts (1) create an awareness of these conflicts, their sources, and with other land uses include consequences and (2) propose solutions to prevent or resolve Speed restrictions, such conflicts. Limitations on hours of operation, Height and clearance impacts, Conflicting Land Uses and Barriers Size and weight limitations, to Freight-Transportation-Related Corridor design impacts, Services Difficulty of dredging operations and disposing of dredged material, and When competing and incompatible land uses exist close Gentrification that drives up land values, making siting of to each other, these uses often interfere with each other, transportation or industrial uses costly. resulting in conflicts between them. Conflicts could be physical in nature and/or involve nuisance, health, or safety concerns. Some barriers can be mode-specific (e.g., highway and road Most residential, educational, and medical-related land uses design impacts on trucking activities or dredging impacts are often incompatible with freight activity. Among the major on waterway transportation), while other barriers may be conflicts non-freight interests have with freight-transportation- more general across modes (e.g., limitations on hours of related services are operation). Barriers not only affect freight activities along particular corridors and facilities, but also can affect route Air and water pollution, choices and the ability to access freight and manufacturing Light pollution, facilities.