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73 Sources of Conflicts and Barriers between freight entities and other relevant stakeholder groups. These approaches were organized into "tools" under the The land-use planning and zoning functions of government guiding principle of freight-compatible development. The are the primary areas where conflicts between freight and two main objectives of freight-compatible development are to other land uses are either avoided or created. In the United (1) ensure that freight-transportation-related services are not States, land-use planning and zoning are mostly the respon- affected by, or do not affect, other land uses placed close to sibility of local governments. The NCFRP Project 24 research freight corridors or facilities and (2) reduce and minimize identified a number of ways in which land-use planning and community impacts that arise because of the proximity of zoning contributed to conflicts and barriers, including sensitive land uses, including residences, schools, hospitals, and emergency services. 1. Land-use planning processes generally plan inadequately, The four major tools available--either individually or in if at all, for freight, for a variety of reasons, including the combination--to achieve the goals of freight-compatible following: development are Land-use planners are typically not taught about freight and do not understand why it is important to the econ- 1. Long-range planning, omy or how it works. 2. Zoning and design, There is a lack of maps that identify freight facilities and 3. Mitigation, and corridors. 4. Education and outreach. Freight entities are generally not significantly involved in local land-use and transportation visioning and planning Long-range planning and zoning are primarily prospec- processes. tive in nature with the goal of avoiding conflicts. Education Cash-starved jurisdictions have an incentive to zone for and outreach also can be a prospective tool, as awareness uses with higher tax values. and understanding of freight and land-use issues can lead 2. State and regional planning does not do much to fill the to forward-looking solutions. The following are examples of gap in freight planning. specific prospective tools: 3. Regional visioning exercises generally do not deal adequately with freight. 1. State enabling acts should ideally be amended to require 4. Funding is often lacking or insufficient for freight planning that freight be one of the key elements that states, local and preservation. jurisdictions, and planning agencies account for in both 5. Although most cities and counties utilize an "industrial" transportation planning and land-use planning. zoning designation, they generally do not create specific 2. Guidance needs to be provided to land-use planners zoning categories for freight facilities and corridors. Freight regarding appropriate planning and zoning practices that is industrial activity, yet its impacts are distinct from other relate to freight. For example, zoning overlays and indus- forms of heavy industry. trial protection zones can be put in place not just for the industrial areas that are serviced by freight, but also for In addition, the NCFRP Project 24 research found that poor the corridors that link to them. communication is at the core of many conflicts between 3. Accurate mapping of freight facilities and corridors should freight entities and other stakeholders. One example of poor become part of the comprehensive planning process. communication is the lack of notice in many real estate Mapping of such facilities will contribute to the preserva- tion and protection of these facilities. transactions regarding possible freight-related impacts on 4. Cooperative regional planning efforts, such as regional the intended land use (e.g., residential development). Poor visioning processes, should include freight entities as key communication also exists between various levels of gov- stakeholders and make freight a significant focus. ernment entities in many cases. Among other things, lack of 5. State and national associations related to planning or communication leads to conflicting expectations and lack of development should provide the appropriate education buy-in for solutions. and tools related to freight planning for city and county planners. 6. Freight entities should participate as stakeholders in local, Suggestions for Achieving regional, and state planning and visioning processes. Freight-Compatible Development 7.Private-sector groups, including local chambers of The research conducted under NCFRP Project 24 and commerce, can play an important role in keeping freight previous experiences of the project team uncovered a number issues on the agenda and ensuring buy-in from the business of approaches for preventing or resolving land-use conflicts community when a preservation project is proposed.