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5 chapter one IntroductioN Overview in the literature review. Each of the selected transit agencies was sent an e-mail with a link to the online survey instru- This synthesis addresses the current practices and experience ment; follow-up e-mails were sent approximately two weeks of public transit agencies in applying both corrective actions later. Twenty-five of the responses were substantially com- and rewards to recognize, motivate, and reinforce a safety plete, a response rate of 83.3%. culture within their organizations. Based on the information obtained through the litera- This synthesis project surveyed and interviewed a range ture review and survey results, telephone interviews were of small to large transit agencies, including rural and urban conducted with selected transit agencies and used as case multimodal systems. The survey and follow-up interviews examples. The case examples provide additional detail and addressed the following items: insight on active and innovative practices and related issues on the use of reward and discipline programs to promote and Organizational commitment to safety improve bus transit safety. Rewards and discipline Engagement of the work force Partnerships with organized labor Report Organization Operations and maintenance Agency safety standards and practices This synthesis report is composed of five chapters, including Other industry examples. the introduction provided in this chapter. Chapter two presents the findings of the literature review. Methodology This effort focused on reports and documents addressing the The approach to this synthesis included a literature review, connection between the effectiveness of reward/discipline a survey of transit agencies, and telephone interviews with programs in transit organizations and employee safety per- transit agencies selected as case studies. formance and reward programs. A literature review was conducted with a focus on the cur- Chapter three includes the results of an on-line survey of rent state of the practice in the use of rewards and discipline 30 U.S. and Canadian transit agencies identified as having programs for bus operators in the public transit industry. active and innovative safety programs. The survey focused This effort included an on-line search of the Transportation on collecting information on the organization's commitment Research International Documentation (TRID) and other rel- to safety, reward and discipline programs, and agency safety evant databases (e.g., industry, university, and government standards and practices. sources). In addition, conference proceedings and trade mag- azines were reviewed to obtain relevant papers and presenta- Chapter four provides findings of nine case examples tions. The results of the literature search are summarized and highlighting those agencies that have active safety programs included in chapter two. that successfully use employee rewards and discipline pro- grams to improve safety for bus operations. The online survey "Improving Transit Safety through Rewards and Discipline" was designed to elicit information Chapter five includes a summary of lessons learned, pre- on each organization's safety policies, safety discipline pro- sents conclusions, and offers suggestions on future research. grams and safety incentives and rewards programs. A tar- geted list of 30 North American transit agencies with active Appendix A is a copy of the survey as it appeared online. bus operator safety programs was identified based on rec ommendations from TCRP panel members, trade organiza- Appendix B provides a list of the transit agencies that par- tions such as APTA and the CTAA, and agencies identified ticipated in the survey.