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7 ment's perception of safety. However, the effectiveness of · The public sector programs' shortage of profits, which the reward/disciplinary program or practice is difficult, if are typically used to both measure the program and not impossible, to measure because systematic or on-going fund the private sector incentive programs programs in general have no control group or baseline with · The public sector's need to be accountable to the tax- which to compare results. Although disciplinary programs payers, making it difficult to justify the "extra pay" in transit organizations tend to be more commonplace than · The public sector's tendency not to differentiate among reward programs (in part because the organizations may face employees liability issues if they do not establish a disciplinary proce- · The difficulty of data collection to measure and justify dure), current studies that draw conclusions as to their effec- the incentive tiveness in improving transit safety appear to be nonexistent. · The difficulty in defining performance measures that are objective and within the employee control · The acceptability of the incentive rewards in the con- Transit Incentive Program Context text of collective bargaining agreements. TCRP Synthesis 3: Incentive Programs to Improve Transit Among the report's conclusions were that the incentive pro- Employee Performance (Hartman et al. 1994) examined the grams tended to operate in isolation, received mixed reviews, concept of linking employee compensation or recognition to most commonly dealt with safety and absenteeism, and had specific accomplishments in the public transit industry. For limited documentation of program results. the purpose of the synthesis, incentive programs were con- sidered to be those that provide a one-time cash payment, gift, or recognition for a particular job. Other Industries and Incentives The report detailed that the structure of the incentive pro- Similar observations were made in other industry examples grams reviewed generally included: where incentives are part of an organizational attempt to insti- tutionalize motivation toward safe behaviors. Prichard notes · The definition of the accomplishment to be recognized that "the effect of rewards on motivation and performance is · The population eligible for recognition a well-studied subject in both management and safety litera- · The period of time over which the performance will be ture. A majority of U.S. businesses use some sort of safety rewarded incentive, and most safety professionals believe that they are · Provisions for measuring and evaluating an important element in any safety and health program." For accomplishments example, "Even research of best practices within the Con- · The program budget struction Industry (conducted by the Construction Industry · The mechanism to review the program effectiveness. Institute) indicate that the inclusion of incentive programs among the top ten practices was based on popularity of use, The synthesis report highlighted some of the challenges not on demonstrated effectiveness" primarily because "most that incentive programs in the public sector encountered programs have not been formally evaluated, examined or in contrast to private sector programs. These challenges measured. Effectiveness ... is generally based on anecdotal included: evidence."