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10 Transportation, contains a cost analysis to test the feasibility Council of Governments' RideArrangers VanPool program of express bus service on a freeway in MinneapolisSt. Paul. (RTDDenver 2009). The result of the analysis is a recommendation to compute vehicle hours by route and time of day, rather than systemwide, Conclusion and concludes that "Expansion of service in peak periods at a relatively greater rate than base periods will also adversely The literature review reveals that existing research rarely affect transit operating costs" (Cherwony 1978). A monograph, focuses on the integration of ridesharing and transit, instead "Peak Period Supplements: The Contemporary Economics concentrating on specific programs as case studies. Several of Urban Bus Transport in the U.K. and U.S.A." (Oram 1979), articles look at transit-operated vanpool programs; these appear integrated the findings of numerous studies indicating that to be the most common form of integration examined in peak-only services have substantially higher marginal costs previous studies. There have also been studies of casual car- than all-day services, given the regulatory history and current pooling; however, they tend to focus on specific cities where institutional framework of the transit industry and recent such operations occur. service innovations, such as vanpools, subscription buses, and privately operated "supplements." Overall, there do not appear to be any substantial studies that provide a comprehensive look at how ridesharing has been Peak/off-peak marginal cost analysis, as recommended integrated by transit agencies. Research on the integration of in the foregoing documents, is currently performed by the ridesharing in transit planning, the use of technology to pro- RTD in Denver, where the operating costs and subsidy are mote ridesharing, and the need or use of performance measures derived for each route operated. For example, the average sub- related to ridesharing is largely missing from the literature. As sidy per boarding of the 25 express bus routes RTD provided a result, the literature review supports the need for this synthe- in 2009 was $4.73, with the lowest at $3.12 and the highest sis, which gathers information from public transit agencies and at $29.25. During the same year, the subsidy per boarding in other organizations that either operate or support ridesharing the VanPool program was $2.58. Using this economic ratio- programs. This synthesis is intended to provide a better under- nale for ridesharing as a complement to its express bus ser- standing of how operators provide ridesharing as a complement vice, RTD provides subsidy support to the Denver Regional to transit by enhancing coordination between the two modes.