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35 ridesharing and transit and from case studies of public transit the competition for parking when ridesharers are allowed to agencies that have used ridesharing in contingency planning. park in lots designated for transit riders. This competition was highlighted in the profile of Bay Area Rapid Transit The Regional Transportation District in Denver supports and the controls it employs to prevent the use of its parking vanpools because they require a lower subsidy per boarding lots by casual carpools. On the other hand, the Potomac and than its express routes. Kings County Area Public Transit Rappahannock Transportation Commission actively assists Agency in central California uses vanpools for farm worker casual carpools by helping to identify parking for them. Pace transportation because it is more cost-efficient than trying to helps find parking for its Metra feeder vans in city-owned lots. serve nontraditional hours with fixed-route bus service. Only Just as these three agency profiles illustrate parking manage- three transit agencies in this survey use ridesharing as a cost- ment techniques, public transit agencies that are considering saving measure. A detailed case study of these and others in the ridesharing programs would find a deeper exploration of broader universe of agencies could help transit agencies that parking management helpful. Another survey participant noted may face service cuts. Rather than simply cutting service when the need for publicly accessible park-and-ride lots in any ride- their ability to maintain the status quo is threatened by falling sharing program linked to transit. Agencies are clearly search- revenues, transit agencies could explore ridesharing as an alter- ing for good answers to the parking problem and would benefit native mode of providing mobility to their communities. from research that identified successful programs. Contingency planning allows for transit agencies to identify Better Performance Measures for Evaluating potential threats to their service and plan for ways to address the Worth of Ridesharing Within a Public worst-case scenarios. Further research could focus on success Transit Environment ful practices of specific agencies that use ridesharing in their contingency planning. This research could explore how ride- Almost two-thirds (65%) of respondents determine if the sharing has been used for backup during transit strikes, vehicle amount spent on ridesharing is worthwhile by the number of breakdowns, natural disasters, and national security crises. people subscribed to/signed up for the ridesharing program. Carpooling in particular is an important option in such events, Ten survey respondents (26%) do not set any performance but very little was found in the literature search about how measures for the ridesharing program. Although subscrip- carpooling can be integrated into transit planning. tion is a common metric for ridesharing programs, it may be considered soft data by transit professionals who are most The following are other subjects that emerged from the familiar with quantitative measures, such as a route's fare- synthesis which present further topics for research. box recovery and daily ridership numbers. When difficult economic decisions are being made, transit professionals will need sound performance measures to see the value of Emerging Technologies for Ridesharing and Transit starting or maintaining ridesharing programs within their A mobility manager provides a full range of alternatives to agencies. For example, what are the impacts on revenue and the single-occupant automobile. One such strategy is using on operating costs of using ridesharing to substitute for transit ridesharing as a complement to transit. A rapidly increasing routes? What are the environmental benefits of ridesharing menu of technologies is available to transit agencies that want and how can they be measured to demonstrate compliance to be mobility managers. Some examples of these technolo- with legislation or funding requirements (e.g., reduction gies include smartphones for dynamic ridesharing, transit trip in vehicle-miles traveled, reduction in carbon emissions, planners that search for both ride-matching and transit options and particulates)? A future study could define the metrics to satisfy a given query, transit social networking websites and guide agencies in obtaining the needed information to that allow ride-matching and real-time communication among develop better performance measures when evaluating ride- vanpoolers and carpoolers, transit and ride-matching pro- sharing programs. grams accessible through a mobile phone application, instant feedback to a survey question from customers by means of Conclusion a mobile phone application, and a technological solution to fare integration of ridesharing and transit. Technology can Evidence that ridesharing complements public transit is lim- also be valuable in facilitating communications during ited, according to this examination of the state of the prac- natural disasters and national emergencies. Research could tice. Even though ridesharing has been around for decades be undertaken to document successful practices in the transit as a travel mode and despite the benefits that a number of industry that would serve as models for others in this fast-paced agencies have experienced a good deal of skepticism about field of emerging technologies. combining ridesharing and public transit still exists. None- theless, this review has also uncovered some interesting Ridesharing and Transit Parking Management practices that can give food for thought to public transit agencies. These practices are highlighted in the synthesis' Parking is a knotty problem when ridesharing is promoted agency profiles and are the impetus for suggestions of future with transit. One comment from a survey participant cited research that can advance the state of the practice.