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7 chapter two Literature Review Introduction since 1970, when the census reported that 20.4% of American workers commuted to work by carpool. The decline is attrib- This chapter summarizes the relevant findings of literature on uted to a drop in gasoline prices, as well as improved fuel the integration of ridesharing with transit. The sources in this economy and shifting social trends. literature review were identified through a search of the TRIS database, online resources, and references in publications. Twenty-six documents were reviewed, the majority of which Transit-Operated Vanpool Programs were published between 1999 and 2011, although some date to the 1970s. There have been several studies that examine vanpool pro- grams across the county. The 2002 report Transit-Operated Vanpools in the United States: Selected Case Studies (Higgins Ridesharing programs in public transit agencies are not and Rabinowitz 2002), for example, profiles 25 vanpool pro- widespread. Perhaps because of this, there is limited research grams, including those run by transit agencies, public-sector focusing on the integration of ridesharing and transit. The organizations, and nonprofit groups. Among the programs existing research primarily includes case studies of specific surveyed are six operated by transit agencies in the Seattle area programs run by transit agencies. Roughly half of the arti- as well as vanpool services provided by Pace Suburban Bus cles reviewed herein are about vanpool programs, including Service in Chicago. The authors find that the most common those operated by transit agencies, where a key purpose is objective of the vanpool programs studied is to "extend the to increase penetration into areas where bus service is not reach of transit services into areas or service hours not well realistic. Some research has indicated that using vanpools served by fixed-route public transit." They also determined that instead of express buses can reduce operating costs. Other there are several conditions that lend to successful programs, studies examine ridesharing incentives or ride-matching ser including centralized employment centers, long-distance com- vices provided by transit agencies. There has also been research mutes, strong retail growth, increasing fuel prices, and priority on casual carpooling (carpooling without pre-arrangement) on roadways for vanpools. and dynamic, or real-time, ridesharing in specific cities, but the focus has not largely been on the nexus between transit An older report, APTA Vanpool Involvement Survey, by and ridesharing. Pace Market Research, published in 1996, described the state of vanpool programs within the public transit agency industry Public Transit Agencies with at that time. Based on survey responses from APTA members, Ridesharing Programs the report discusses a wide variety of issues, including the reasons vanpool programs were established, the types of vans Although government-sponsored ridesharing projects have used, and the sources of funding for operations and capital been around since the 1970s, ridesharing is not well integrated purchases. The report, for example, concluded that opening into public transit agencies. "Ridesharing in North America: new markets and fulfilling agency missions were the most Past, Present, and Future" (Chan and Shaheen 2011) reported important factors for starting vanpool programs. In addition, that currently there are approximately 384 ride-matching the report illustrates the differences between transit agencies programs in the United States. When contacted, the authors with vanpool programs and those without. It found that agen- consulted their database and found as of July 2010, 32 of cies with vanpool programs serve larger areas but smaller the 384 were operated by U.S. public transit agencies. To be populations than those without. counted in the 32 agencies, the transit agency showed direct support to both transit services and carpool/vanpool services Another study, TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to on its website. Seven of the 32 offer carpool services, 12 offer Transportation System Changes, Chapter 5--Vanpools and vanpool services, and 13 offer both carpool and vanpool Buspools (Evans 2005), describes different types of vanpool services. The paper, quoting unpublished data, also noted programs in the country--employer-sponsored, third-party, that there are seven times as many U.S. passenger miles and transit-provided vanpool programs--and analyzes traveler for commute trips by carpool and vanpool as there are for response factors to vanpools and buspools. This 2005 report public transit. Although ridesharing has increased slightly in also provides case studies of four vanpool programs, three of recent years to around 10.7% of mode share, it has declined which are operated or supported by transit or transportation