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8 agencies. In the mid-1990s, nearly 60 transit agencies report- The agency's vanpool program is one of 23 profiled in a edly provided vanpools. The authors state that the number of 2009 CTAA report called Profiles of Innovative Rural Vanpool vanpools operated by transit agencies has been rapidly grow- Programs; roughly half of the programs included are spon- ing, reaching more than 3,900 in 2001. sored or supported by transit agencies. The rest of the profiles are of a variety of other organizations, such as a university and One agency highlighted in the 2005 TCRP report is Pace, a nonprofit agency. According to the report, rural communities which serves Chicago's six county suburbs and operates a have "led the way in pioneering vanpool programs," and the Vanpool Incentive Program (VIP). The program has several most innovative programs have been in Washington State, vanpooling options, including passenger vans for groups which supports, funds, and encourages vanpools. The report of commuters and vans for human service agencies that also outlines several elements that have led to successful provide work-related transportation service to individuals vanpool programs, including the development of innovative with disabilities (Evans 2005). It operates like a fixed-route partnerships, involvement of area employers, and political service and differs from conventional vanpool programs in support from local leaders. its route design, payment procedures, fare structure, and other elements, according to an article called "Pace Vanpool Incentive Program" that examines the program's development, Ridesharing Programs and Incentives implementation, operation, and impact. Pace designs each of King County Metro's Rideshare program, established in its vanpool routes as opposed to allowing drivers and riders 1984, is the focus of a 2000 study called "Rideshare Plus-- decide. Drawing from the Pace VIP experience, the article Customized Ridesharing Program Finding Success" (Blu- also points out several benefits of integrating vanpooling into menthal and Pawlowski 2000). The authors describe how the the public transit system, including improved responsiveness program--which has evolved over the years--helps form to economic change and enhanced mobility for certain com- carpools and vanpools for commuters by using Geographic muters (Cervero 1996). Information Systems software. Data analysis, promotional activities, personal follow-ups, and surveys are all part of the A transit operator in the state of Washington, King County program, which is contracted to employers. Metro Transit, runs the largest public commuter van pro- gram in the country, and as such, the program has been dis- A 1999 study also looked at King County Metro and exam- cussed in several studies. The 1999 article The Best Practices ined its voucher programs Commuter Bonus and Commuter in Vanpooling: The First Public Vanpool Program Marks Bonus Plus, which promoted alternative commuting modes, its 20th Year (Pawlowski and Maillet 1999) describes the such as carpooling and public transit. The study report, "Unique King County program, which provides roughly three million Voucher Programs to Increase Alternative Commuting," rides a year to those not well served by traditional transit. (Allen et al. 1999) discusses the development, implementation, The authors of this article contend that WSDOT's support operation, and performance of the two programs. Several has been key to the program's success. In addition, it was conclusions were reached about the overarching Commuter the state legislature that first passed the Ridesharing Act Bonus voucher program. For example, the author found that it in 1979, which provided sales tax exemption for purchas- "generated enough revenue (through new transit ridership) to ing vanpooling vehicles, established liability insurance as support the operation" of the two voucher programs, increased "ordinary standard of care" for volunteer drivers, and defined alternative commuting trips, and demonstrated that a "large- vanpooling as a fixed group of up to 15 individuals traveling volume voucher program could be operated as an in-house from home to work or school. This legislation paved the way program from a single PC [personal computer]" (Allen et al. for vanpool programs throughout Washington State. This 1999). The voucher programs have since been replaced by vanpool history is similarly recounted in "Pooling Together: Commuter Cheques and ORCA, a comprehensive regional Why the Vanpool Works in the US and the Netherlands" pass (S. Pawlowski, Rideshare Operations Supervisor, per- (Enoch 2003), which explains King County's program in sonal communication, Mar. 22, 2011). depth, describing everything from fee structures to daytime uses of the vans. Casual Carpooling Washington State also boasts vanpool programs in rural regions. In rural south central Washington, for example, There have been several articles on casual carpooling, also Ben Franklin Transit operates a regional vanpool program called slugging, in Houston, San Francisco, and the Northern that largely serves federal government and private employment Virginia/Metro Washington D.C. areas. They tangentially sites in two states and eight counties. According to an article discuss transit's intersection with casual carpooling, instead about the program called "Vanpools: A Viable Option in Rural focusing on how specific systems work or how passengers Regions," the transit agency focuses on meeting customer behave. needs, using a variety of funding sources and building part- nerships with other organizations to help ensure its success Of the articles, "Casual Carpooling in the San Francisco (Conrick 2008). Bay Area" (Beroldo 1990) discusses the intersection with