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12 identified major track construction and maintenance jobs and the levels of worker protection required, and safety brief- ings with work crews before commencing work. In addition, most of the agencies interviewed had implemented a Safety Hotline that employees with safety concerns could use to make anonymous reports. The hotline was monitored by the safety department. All credible reports were investigated and addressed as needed. In their interview, NYCT personnel highlighted the NYCT Department of Subways's successful practice of conducting a joint management/union safety inspection prior to the commencement of all major track construction projects and large-scale scheduled track maintenance jobs (e.g., multiple rail replacement, switch renewal, and extensive plate renewal). A track construction/maintenance superintendent schedules FIGURE 1 TTC streetcar switch sweeper (Photo: Chris Kozub). the inspections by contacting the TWU and support divisions (Infrastructure, Signals, and Third Rail Operations) a week or more before a job is scheduled to start. The overall process piloted and then adopted a new practice using small rubber- includes three major steps. tired street sweepers, as seen in Figure 1. TTC worked with the manufacturer of the sweeper to modify the angle and The first step is for all parties to meet and review the job. positioning of the brushes, allowing brushes to reach into the The track construction/maintenance superintendent gives a flange-ways of the in-street switches. This modification has brief description of the job. This includes the type of work removed six employees per day from the hazards of vehicular that will be done on the nights and weekend General Orders traffic, allowing safer and faster cleaning practices. (e.g., dig out, rail job, hand chip out, concrete pour, and welding) and the details of the timing and length of the job. Summary The second step is to conduct the joint pre-job walk- through safety inspection using a standardized inspection All the agencies in this study viewed the implementation of form. The inspection is handled like any other ROW mainte- standardized ROW rules and flagging training as a major nance job. The Rule of the Day is reviewed, Tool Box Safety step in advancing ROW employee safety. MBTA Operations Talk is conducted, and appropriate flagging protection is Training reported that the feedback received is evaluated to established. The track construction/maintenance superintendent help guide future rule modifications. Several agencies cited points out to all parties entering the track area the starting the practice of bringing trainees onto the ROW to emphasize point (column marker) and clear-up spaces. The site is then the importance of the training to their safety. After the 2007 assessed for: ROW worker fatalities, NYCT reevaluated its training and made it more interactive and engaging. Major improvements Any immediate and obvious conditions or hazards; included integrating more exercises and class discussions into Egress and emergency evacuation exits--identified, the curriculum. In addition, unlike other agencies in which the properly illuminated, and unobstructed; refresher training is exactly the same as the initial training, Working blue lights to indicate the location of EAB, NYCT developed separate refresher training courses for both ET, and fire extinguisher; the ROW and the flagging training. The refresher training Emergency telephone(s) and working emergency alarm is intended to take students to the next level and challenges box(es); them to apply the rules and concepts covered in training to Full fire extinguisher(s), with an inspection card verify- actual situations. MTA's initiative to create a computer-based ing a recent inspection; refresher training module is also aimed at getting employees Electrical hazards; more involved in their learning. Configuration of the track; Adjacent track flagging needs, including the number of HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION flaggers required; Illumination of the job site; All of the agencies interviewed reported conducting hazard Cleaned and illuminated wide areas; identification and evaluation processes that included ROW Adequate ventilation; worker safety considerations. Generally, these include multi- Presence of old material; departmental meetings to review major construction jobs, Tripping and slipping hazards; and the issuance of General Orders or similar measures that Water conditions.