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15 CHAPTER THREE WORK-SITE PROTECTION INTRODUCTION prepared Rule-of-the-Day and conducting a job-specific Toolbox Safety Talk before the beginning of the tour's assigned This chapter discusses the specific practices and procedures, tasks. Newly issued safety bulletins and advisories must outlined in each agency's rules, safety bulletins, and training also be discussed in this forum. The meeting must cover the programs, that pertain to track worker protection. These aforementioned procedural requirements for establishing and include conducting job briefings and establishing a work site, maintaining a safe work environment, and alert personnel of communications procedures between employees and control the specific hazards associated with the task (4, p. 2.3). centers or towers, track worker PPE, flagger PPE, flagger signaling, designated levels of protection/flagging, flagging, These meetings are part of a broader practice to establish a and safety challenges. Most of the practices are excerpted safe work site methodically. "The Box" concept is a procedure directly from each system's current rule book, and the overall used to establish a safe work environment for all track work. sections are cited within the list of references. The term refers to an area of a track or work location framed by a square or rectangular border defined by supervisors or Two systems, NYCT and TTC, have been evolving their by the person in charge of the work. The width is from wall to rules and practices for decades, learning from experiences wall, wall to column, column to column, or otherwise defined. and from evaluating and analyzing their procedures. MBTA, The length of the box is broader than the immediate work site according to one of the senior officials, started with a "clean and includes the adjoining area used for: sheet of paper" several years ago to develop a new track worker protection program. As part of this process they referred to, Storage of tools and equipment; but did not follow, the FRA regulations for track worker Clearing up of personnel; protection. The other two systems--MTA and River LINE-- Walking about by personnel as they perform their share parts of their ROWs with FRA-regulated freight railroads; assigned tasks; and this requires them to meet and, if they choose to, exceed a Location of the closest emergency alarm box. FRA-compliant track worker protection program. This border defines the area that has been inspected and cleaned of potential hazards before performing work (see JOB BRIEFINGS AND ESTABLISHING WORK SITES Figure 4) (5, pp. 2.32.6). Each system interviewed uses job briefings. The applicability, Figure 5 shows the Daily Subways Maintenance Super- based on level of work and protection, and extent of these visors Checklist that must be filled out at the beginning of a briefings vary by system. Some also have a process for tour when establishing a work site and returned to the super- documenting the establishment of a work site. intendent at the end of each day. Copies of the completed forms must be filed at the appropriate subdivision field office for 90 days (5, p. 3.4). New York City Transit Authority In New York, every work site must be reviewed by a super- Toronto Transit Commission visor or employee-in-charge. Supervisors hold a pre-job meeting to designate the flaggers, outline the job, communi- Toronto requires job briefings but does not address this issue cate the type of flagging protection that will be established, in the Subway/SRT Rulebook. Instead, each department that provide an opportunity for employees to discuss their concerns, performs track-level work has developed a specific procedure and complete a checklist. The supervisor or employee-in- for where, when, and how to conduct job briefings, including charge must advise employees of the location and access to what needs to be covered. Generally, a daily job briefing for the clear-up locations, which must be within 15 ft of where each crew is conducted at its main work location, and a safety the work is taking place (4, p. 2.7). briefing is conducted at the job site. The foreperson uses a department-specific checklist for the safety briefing. He or These pre-job meetings are also where and when super- she signs the form upon completion of the briefing and retains visors are responsible for advising hourly employees of the a copy for the department files.

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16 FIGURE 4 NYCT "Box" concept (Courtesy: NYCT). Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Acknowledgement Statement (see Figure 6) indicating they understand the safety procedures and instructions presented It is the responsibility of the foreperson, among other duties, (7, pp. 21.121.3). to conduct a job hazard analysis and site briefings to ensure the safety of work crews. A job hazard analysis is an evaluation River LINE of a work site and a job to be performed at that work site. It must be conducted before the commencement of work to determine On the New Jersey Transit River LINE the approach is similar if hazards exist and what PPE is appropriate to minimize to MTA's practices. All roadway workers on the River LINE those hazards. A site briefing is conducted before the start of whose duties require the coordination between two or more work on the ROW. The hazards identified in the job hazard workers must perform a job briefing before starting their job. analysis and protections required for the job are discussed The roadway worker must acknowledge that he or she has a during a site briefing (6, pp. 910). clear understanding of the task, how it is to be accomplished, and the on-track protection procedure to be used. Maryland Transit Administration Job briefings are conducted by a supervisor face-to-face with On the MTA light rail system, before performing any task all employees or contractor employees, who acknowledge in requiring the coordination of two or more employees, the OSC writing that they have received and understand the information must conduct a job safety briefing to ensure that all have a in the briefing. Supervisors responsible for the coordination clear understanding of the on-track safety provided and of of work are required to maintain a record of the job briefing individual responsibilities. The Railroad Worker Protection for a 7-day period. When not practical or possible to conduct a Manual establishes that job briefings should be held at the start face-to-face briefing, a radio or telephone can be used. The job of each job, whenever the OSC changes, or whenever the briefing should include, but is not limited to, the following: on-track safety changes. According to the basic job briefing outline, the OSC should: The specific job to be performed for the day (Example: Installing ties at new interlocking under construction); Stop everything and focus on the job briefing; What type of protection the employee in charge intends to Encourage everyone to participate; use (Example: Depending on the nature of the work, the Review the entire work assignment; affected track will be taken out of service or obstructed, Determine which type of on-track safety will be provided; or foul time will be requested); Assign flagger or watchperson and advance watchperson Responsibilities of each employee (Example: Which as needed; employees will be used at "Stop Signs" if the track is to Encourage employees to share previous similar work be obstructed); experiences; Any known hazards or situations that could jeopardize Identify potential job hazards; personal safety (Example: The adjacent track is in service Reach a consensus on how the job needs to be done to and trains will be passing work site at normal speed); be injury-free; and How equipment is to be operated and which communi- Review the responsibilities of each employee. cation method will be used (Example: Will radio or hand signals be used to communicate with the operator?); The job briefing for on-track safety is deemed complete Any requirements that will affect their job (Example: only after all employees have initialed the Job Briefing Orders to clear the track by a certain time);

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17 FIGURE 5 Daily Subway Maintenance Supervisors Checklist (Courtesy: NYCT).