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20 2. Maintain an accurate list of all personnel on the ROW, or LED powered by three C batteries, Streamlight, or similar the number of people in the work crew, and the desig- lights. These approved lights must be used to provide sufficient nated flagperson(s) and their location; light to permit moving about safely. If an employee encounters 3. Confirm that the crew has a working radio; a train while on the track, this light can also be used to flag 4. Question crews about the work activity, the work loca- a train. tion, and the Level of Protection. If the work activity or work location is not appropriate for the Level of Other conditions or tasks may require additional protective Protection, the dispatcher will deny the work crew equipment. Respiratory protection is required in oxygen- access to the ROW and contact the crew's supervisor. deficient or low-air-quality environments. Fall protection is 5. Broadcast the Right of Way Access List at least every required when working from certain heights and locations, 20 min. This access list includes all persons and work and additional protective face shields, gloves, footwear, hard crews who are on or near the ROW (6, Section 9.0). hats, and jackets are sometimes required. Employees working around the energized third rail are Maryland Transit Administration and the River LINE required to use enough 1/4-in., 3-ft wide rubber mats, in good repair, to cover the third rail in the work area. When multiple In accordance with their FRA-compliant rules, these two mats are required, there must be a minimum 1-ft overlap agencies require all employees to call the control center whenever they enter or clear the ROW. This requirement is between mats. covered in each section of their rules that pertain to each level of track protection. Additionally, MTA broadcasts an All metal tools used in the vicinity of the third rail must be "all-call" to all operators in service whenever an employee insulated with appropriate insulation that is in good repair. calls on and off the ROW. Insulated tools are inspected daily before they are brought to the work site. Insulation that becomes damaged during work can be repaired by applying a minimum of four layers of All Systems electrical tape to the affected area of the tool. This is only a temporary repair and is only approved for that specific day's Universally across the five systems, communications between work (13, Rule 6.08). groups of track workers or lone workers and the control center or tower are by means of radio. On the MTA, identified radio "dead zones" have been addressed by issuing an MTA cell Toronto Transit Commission phone to each MOW vehicle on the system. These cell phones are not to be used on the ROW and may be used only when Specific guidelines for PPE are detailed in department rules radio transmissions are not possible. All systems require that as opposed to the general Subway/SRT Rulebook. According each work group have at least one working radio, and in cases to the Safety Department, minimum PPE required by all in which lone workers are permitted, the lone worker must employees working at track level includes: have a working radio. All systems require employees to clear the ROW when their radio malfunctions or fails. Head protection with reflective material (hard hats or bump caps); Safety glasses; TRACK WORKER PERSONAL Safety shoes (ankle high with toe and sole protection); PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Reflective leg and arm bands; Appropriate track-level warning devices, yellow, red, Personal protective equipment, communally referred to as or green safety lights, flags and personal flashlights; and PPE, is required for track workers on every system. Given Approved train signaling device, Lenser light, or yellow the diversity of system sizes, operating environments, and and red flags. previously mentioned hazards, the study does not attempt to compare PPE requirements across systems. A summary of The rule book directs employees to wear approved PPE the PPE items, specifications, and use at each system follows. when they are at track level as required by the work they are performing and their department rules. The PPE is approved New York City Transit Authority by the Safety Department, but each department is not required to use the same equipment. The Safety Department recently All employees working on the ROW, regardless of department, replaced large battery pack lanterns with a small, hand-held are required to wear at a minimum NYCT-issued safety vests, LED Lenser Flashlight. Employees from all departments safety glasses, and NYCT-approved safety shoes or boots responded favorably to this change. (13, Rule 6.08). Employees walking on the ROW must also carry an approved light to illuminate the walking surface. TTC is currently undertaking two initiatives relative to The currently approved lights are high intensity incandescent PPE. The first involves the Safety Department designing a

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21 high visibility T-shirt that workers can wear in place of a vest Moving vehicles; in hot weather. This is particularly appealing to employees Electrical hazards; who spend a good deal of time working on surface track. The Sharp or falling objects; T-shirt specifications include: Rolling objects or pinch points; Harmful dust; and Fluorescent yellowgreen color; Chemicals. Double-layer premium mesh polyester breathable material; Employee questions regarding PPE or any safety equipment Left chest, sealed cell phone pocket and pen slot; are referred to their supervisor for review and resolution. Fully compliant with CSA Z96-09 Class 2, Level 2 standard (tag attached to inside collar); In keeping with the authority's mission that employees 3M #5510 2-in. Zebra tape, applied to 4-in. orange work in a safe environment, various forms of PPE and reflective backing; safety equipment are identified as critical. This includes "X" on back, vertical stripes on front, all meeting at the clothing, equipment, and accessories designed to increase horizontal stripe at the hip (6 in. below normal waist worker visibility and enhance safety while providing addi- striping); tional protection against any known or unknown hazard. TTC heat transfer on back; and The minimum PPE required for all employees working on Embroidered TTC logo on front. the ROW follows: Figure 7 shows a prototype of the T-shirt. The T-shirt costs Reflective orange high-visibility safety garment or vest, approximately $42 with a minimum order of 1,000 shirts. which must be approved by the Safety Department; Working flashlight; The second initiative involves the Track Level Safety Whistle; and Team's comprehensive review of all PPE used by employees Valid ROW license indicating that the person has been from the various departments that enter track level. The goal of trained as required. this initiative is to develop PPE standards to be adopted across the departments. For example, committee members mentioned In addition, one person per crew must have a working that although all workers were required to wear a vest, the portable radio. requirement for arm and leg bands varied. The committee also explored the benefits and limitations of several models of vests MBTA clothing rules specifically prescribe that in addition and recommended the adoption of a new, more reflective vest. to wearing a safety department-approved orange high-visibility safety garment or vest when on the ROW or in the yard area, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority the following rules must be observed: To maximize ROW safety, MBTA requires all employees to Transportation employees must wear the prescribed utilize appropriate PPE while working on or near the ROW. uniform when engaged in flagging activities. During PPE is considered critical to the protection of employees inclement weather, additional weather gear may be worn from hazards such as: over the uniform. FIGURE 7 TTC reflective T-shirt (Courtesy: TTC).