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28 FIGURE 14 Examples of portable warning devices. Portable train detection device being installed on ROW (left ); employee wearing PAD used by MBTA and MTA (right ) (Courtesy: MBTA). Zone (AWZ) by automatically illuminating LED lights that The first stage of the pilot, which involves testing the tech- warn train operators of the location of roadway workers as nology on Bombardier's test track, is in process. A number the train approaches the AWZ. Roadway workers are alerted of potential areas are being evaluated for implementation of to the presence of an approaching train through audible and the product in the TTC system. visual alerts that are engaged when the train enters the AWZ, providing adequate time for the workers to proceed to a safe location as the train passes. See Figure 15 for an illustration FLAGGING EQUIPMENT of the TrackSafe system components. There was no consistent definition of the terms "flagman" or "flagperson" or of "watchman" or "watchperson" used by the agencies interviewed. NYCT and MBTA use "flagman" or "flagperson" exclusively to describe the persons responsible for setting up and staffing flagging configurations. TTC and the River LINE call the employees responsible for these same job functions "watchpersons." MTA uses "flagman" to describe the person responsible for controlling train movement through the work site. The MTA refers to the people who serve as the intermediary between the flagmen and the ROW work crew in situations where there is not a clear line of sight between the two, as "advance watchmen." In addition to the PPE required to enter the ROW, almost all the systems interviewed mandate additional PPE for flaggers and watchpersons. They also have lists of required equip- ment that flaggers and watchpersons must have with them to perform their duties. New York City Transit The NYCT Department of Subways requires flaggers to have the following equipment: FIGURE 15 TrackSafe components (track level). System components placed every 500 ft along ROW (top); Standard track worker PPE; track worker RFI device (bottom) (Courtesy: TTC). Reflectorized vest with an identifiable NYCT logo;

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29 Lights or flags in working condition and of prescribed color based on the type of flagging to be done. Flags must be at least 23 in. by 29 in. Whistle or air horn. Air horn must be used in areas with excessive noise. PTS; and Piece(s) of stout cord, between 4 ft and 6 ft in length, for tying the red light or the red flag to the stop arm of the PTS [9, Rule 3.75 (b)]. Toronto Transit Commission Along with basic PPE, TTC requires watchpersons to carry: White flashlight or yellow/red flag; Air horn; Whistle; and Appropriate combination and quantity of green, yellow, and red lights and flags and PTS for the type of work zone (2, pp. 6.16.5). Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Aside from the minimum PPE required for all MBTA employees on the ROW, flaggers--depending on work situation--need the following: Set of flags; Air horn; PTS (on Green Line only); and Minimum of 1 to 14 warning devices (6, pp. 2337). To respond to flaggers not having the proper equipment for jobs, MBTA installed Emergency Personal Protective FIGURE 16 MBTA emergency PPE boxes (Courtesy: MBTA). Equipment Boxes at key subway locations and stocked them with flagging equipment required for work site safety and emergency incidents. The boxes ensure field employees Hard hat; and have the required tools to perform tasks safely without Safety glasses. waiting for equipment to be brought from a remote site. Each box is secured by a P-Lock padlock and can be accessed Additionally, watchpersons in these conditions are required by employees of various classifications who are ROW- to have a standard white disc. trained. See Figure 16 for photographs of emergency PPE boxes (11). In tunnels, at night, or in otherwise limited visibility conditions caused by fog, rain, or snow, flaggers and watch- Maryland Transit Administration persons are required to have: MTA flaggers are required to have the following equipment Warning whistle; when there is good visibility at a work site: Approved white light; Air horn; Warning whistle; Two red fuses; Red flag; Safety vest; Air horn; Hard hat; and Safety vest; Safety glasses (7, Rule 20.4).