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30 River LINE DESIGNATED LEVELS OF PROTECTION AND FLAGGING In conditions of good visibility, watchpersons, advance watch- persons, and employees-in-charge are required to carry a Each of the five systems included in the study have predeter- whistle or horn. Watchpersons must also carry a standard mined levels of track protection or work zone classifications white disc, and advance watchpersons are required to carry a that are established within the systems' rule books. In every standard white disc and a red flag. case, all inspections and work must be performed in accor- dance with one of these stratifications. In situations of poor visibility, such as in tunnels or at night, watchpersons and advance watchpersons, must carry a white light in place of standard white discs and employees-in-charge New York City Transit must carry a white light in addition to their other equipment and PPE. Advance watchpersons should also replace their The NYCT Department of Subways has established three red flag with red fuses that can be used in pairs (8, p. 22). levels of track protection. These levels apply to work of any degree and inspections performed on the system. The levels Unique to the River LINE, of all of the systems in the do not apply to employees who are using the ROW to access study, is the requirement for watchpersons and advance their work location, such as an operator walking to a train watchpersons to wear a red "watchman" vest to delineate the or an employee walking to a tower or equipment room. watchperson or advance watchperson from the rest of the In these cases, employees must wear appropriate PPE and work crew, as seen in Figure 17. follow general safety guidelines for walking on the ROW, but they are not required to call the Control Center or tower to request and receive permission. Whenever a worker employed by an entity other than NYCT enters the ROW, a designated representative of the appropriate Department of Subways Division must provide and maintain appropriate flagging protection in accordance with the rules and the nature of the work. In cases in which work is being performed in rooms, such as electrical distribution rooms or pump rooms, which can be accessed from the end of the station platform and without entering the tracks, one NYCT flagger must escort workers to and from the room while equipped with a red light or flag. This can be done only after the passage of a train. When train operators observe one or more yellow lights or flags or orange fluorescent flags, they must reduce their speed to no more than 10 mph and sound two blasts of the horn, repeating if the view ahead is obstructed by a curve or other- wise, and be prepared to stop their trains within one half the range of vision. Point-to-Point Flagging Point-to-point flagging is a procedure [Rule 3.76(a)] for workers who are performing duties in pairs or small groups, moving along the trackway and performing work that could be suspended at any time, with all members of the crew capable of immediately proceeding to a clear-up space within 15 ft. It is prohibited on operating tracks between 0600 h and 0900 h and between 1600 h and 1900 h Mondays through Fridays and at all times in under-river tunnels. In point-to-point flagging, a flagger is assigned to warn and protect the work crew and cannot perform any other duties FIGURE 17 River LINE watchperson using orange disc and while so assigned. Underground at all times and outdoors wearing required red "watchman" vest (Courtesy: River LINE). between sunset and sunrise, the flagger displays a flashing

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31 yellow light on the trackway 650 ft in approach to the work one green flag, or both at a safe distance beyond the farthest area. An orange fluorescent flag is used outdoors on the point of work or obstruction. This safe distance must be at least trackway between the hours of sunrise and sunset, 650 ft in the maximum length of trains permitted on the subdivision approach to the area to be worked on. The flagger assigned to where the work is being performed. Whenever turnouts or warn of approaching trains must able to see his or her flashing crossovers within the areas protected by caution lights or yellow light and the employees he or she is protecting. If this flags allow diverging train movements to another track, one is not possible, "full or standard flagging" is required. If the green light, one green flag, or both must be displayed on the employees are continuously moving while performing their second track, the same distance as that displayed on the track work or inspection, and clear-up space is within 15 ft, the to be worked on. flagger can be less than 650 ft but no closer than 50 ft in advance of the employee(s). The flagger then proceeds to a specific position, designated in Rule 3.77, and places the red light, red flag, or both on a tie Use of the PTS is required when the crew pauses to work in between the running rails adjacent to the rail to which the one location or when the crew enters an area where a clear-up PTS is to be attached, and places the white light out of view space is not accessible within 15 ft. Whenever the PTS is used, of train operators. The PTS is then attached by the flagger to the flagger must display the flashing yellow light or orange the rail, and the stop arm is inserted into the base with the red fluorescent flag 650 ft in advance of the work and must be in light or flag attached to the arm by the stout cord in such a a position no closer than 150 ft in advance of the work. The manner as to permit waving the red flag or swinging the red flagger must install the PTS utilizing the red light or red flag. light across the track with the stop arm in the tripping position. The flagger signals approaching trains to stop until he or she receives verification that the crew is clear of the track. Then Only after completing these steps can the flagger notify the flagger can signal the train to proceed, using the approved the crew that it is safe to enter the track area. The flagger then light or hand signals. On express track, or where there is a stands in a safe position to perform the assigned flagging long, descending grade, or at any point where track conditions duties, holding the red light or flag by hand when a train is in or train schedules permit train speeds of 35 or more mph, the approach of the flagging area. Under no circumstances can flashing yellow light or orange flag must be displayed at a point this distance be less than 150 ft from the work area. 300 ft farther in the direction from which trains approach. As a train approaches the caution lights and flags, the If the crew is performing work between two tracks, a flagger flagger must sound two long blasts of a whistle or air horn to must be assigned to warn and protect the employee from trains warn the work crew, leave the stop arm in its tripping position, on each track. On lead tracks, loop tracks, and middle tracks and swing the red light or red flag across the track until a on the mainline in a three-track system, or where it is not prearranged all-clear signal is received from a designated uncommon for trains to operate in either direction, a flagger NYCT employee with the crew. This signal indicates that the is required on each end to warn of approaching trains in both flagger may allow trains to proceed through the protected area. directions. Upon receipt of an all-clear signal, the flagger must remove the stop arm, step into a prearranged place of safety, conceal the red light or flag from the train operator's view, and then give Full Flagging a proceed signal to the train operator. After the train passes, the flagger must replace the red light or redisplay the red flag This practice is used when more extensive work is being and replace the stop arm in the tripping position, then return performed than would permit point-to-point flagging, but to a safe position. when the track can remain in service. The process at the site begins with the person in charge of the work providing for and If, as the train approaches, the all-clear signal is not received ensuring that the required flagging protection is established by the flagger from the designated NYCT employee with and maintained for the safety of the work crew and the safe the crew, or if the flagger observes any unsafe condition after passage of trains. Depending on the division performing the receiving the all-clear signal, the flagger must continue to work, a supervisor or another qualified flagger must accom- give the train operator a stop signal with a red light or red flag pany the flagger in setting up and removing the flagging. until the train has come to a stop. The stop arm must be left in The responsibility of the escorting supervisor or flagger is to the tripping position. Once the train has stopped, the flagger watch for and warn of approaching trains and to verify that must continue to swing the red light or hold the red flag across the flagging is properly established and removed. the track until receiving the all-clear signal or until he or she is satisfied that the unsafe condition has been corrected. The flagger and the escort place yellow lights or flags in accordance with Rule 3.80. This rule provides specific flag- If it appears that the train is going to pass through the ging distances and configurations for 12 different scenarios, flagger's stop signal, the flagger must continue to wave the depending on track layouts, curves, grades, or operational red light or red flag as a stop signal to the train operator at issues. The flagger and the escort then place one green light, the same time sounding short blasts of a whistle or air horn to

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32 warn the crew of the impending danger, as long as it is safe track areas. Whenever Transit Control gives permission for a to do so. The flagger must then release the red light or flag, walking inspection, work zone, or restricted speed track area, so that it falls between the running rails, leave the stop arm in it must advise the operating train crews to watch for employees tripping position and step quickly to a place of safety while and or warning devices at track level at the specific locations. continuing to sound the whistle or air horn. The flagger or supervisor must then report the incident immediately by An operator who sees a light or flag at track level must obey telephone to the Control Center desk superintendent. all hand signals and be prepared to stop. An operator is required to stop the train: After all persons, equipment, tools, and materials for which the flagging protection had been established are removed At a red light or red flag; from the track area, and the person in charge of the work Immediately when any object is waved violently by reports that the work has been completed, the flagger along with anyone; another qualified flagger must remove the flagging protection Immediately when given a hand signal that is not clearly in the following order: understood; and Immediately when conflicting signals are received. 1. Remove the PTS completely; 2. Remove the red light or red flag and place it in a con- If a white light or yellow flag or a flashing yellow light/ cealed position; yellow flag is seen, the operator must: 3. Remove the green lights or flags; and 4. Remove the yellow lights or flags, keeping all lights Sound the horn with a long blast; lighted until he or she has reached a station platform or For walking inspections (white light or yellow flag) the place where the lights are to be stored. Reduce speed to no more than 8 mph by the time the front of the train reaches the person(s) at track level, When flagging protection is removed, all flags must be taken being prepared to stop and down, not rolled up on the flagstaff where they had been dis- Maintain the speed of the train at no more than 8 mph played. The employee-in-charge of the work must remain at the until it has cleared all persons at track level; location of the work until all obstructions have been removed, For work zones (flashing yellow light/yellow flag) the flagger has safely removed all flagging protection and is Reduce speed to no more than 8 mph, by the time the safely prepared to leave the site, and at least one train has safely front of the train reaches halfway between the flashing passed the area where the work was performed. The Control yellow light/yellow flag, and the red light/flag, being Center desk superintendent of the subdivision is then notified prepared to stop by the employee charged with the work that it is completed. Maintain the speed of the train at no more than 8 mph until its front reaches the green light/flag (major work zones) and the entire train has cleared all persons at General Order Protection track level, unless posted otherwise If the work area conditions permit trains to travel at a This practice is used when a track will be taken out of service greater speed, warning signs indicating a maximum for maintenance, repair, or replacement and so does not allow speed of 12 mph are posted at track level, between the for safe passenger service train movement through the work running rails, no less than 50 ft beyond the last worker area. These areas are protected by an unmanned red flag or at track level in the work area; lamp and PTS configuration at each end of the work area. Travel up to the posted maximum speed of 12 mph Under General Orders, work areas are also isolated by the once the front of the train passes over the maximum Control Center through predetermined modified service speed warning sign, until the front of it reaches the green operations, including simple reroutes, operation through a light/flag and the entire train has cleared all persons at separate line, shuttle service through the affected area, and track level; single-track operation. In some cases, depending on the nature For major work zones where work is being performed and scope of the work to be performed, third-rail power may in one direction only, trains traveling on the track oppo- be de-energized through some or all of the work area covered site of the work area proceed at no more than 8 mph, in the General Order. Once a General Order is complete and all unless warning signs are posted at the yellow light/flag personnel, equipment, and flagging and barriers are removed, indicating a maximum speed of 12 mph. The maximum a test train must first be operated through the work area to speed is observed from the time the front of train reaches ensure it is safe for revenue operation (9, Flagging Rules). the yellow light/flag until the front of the train passes the green light/flag. Toronto Transit Commission In the event that the maximum speed warning sign is not TTC uses five levels of protection for ROW access: walking observed or is unclear, trains must proceed at the maximum inspections; three types of work zones; and restricted speed speed (8 mph). Prior to descending to track level, all work

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33 crews are required to establish a flashing blue light at the flag next to it. On the light rail system a flashing yellow light leaving end of the preceding station. is hung on a flagpole next to the track with the yellow flag next to the light. Walking Inspections Work crews include a watchperson for all major work zones and for any work zone in which employees can see for Walking inspections are used for employees who often go a distance of less than 500 ft. When there is more than one to track level for duties that do not require them to set up crew in a work zone, one person is designated as "in charge" work zones and for workers walking along the tracks on their of both work crews. This person is responsible for setting up way to and from work zones. The maximum number of the appropriate work zone. persons allowed at track level on a walking inspection is five. Some of the work functions that require walking inspection If a work zone is set up in a crossover, center track, or yard protection are: area, extreme caution, as well as extra lights and flags, is used because vehicles may approach from any direction. Visual inspection of the track, switches, and other parts of the subway system; If the work zone overlaps tunnel and open cut sections, Trouble-shooting to locate a fault with the track, switches, warning lights in the tunnel sections and warning flags in open signals, or other parts of the subway or light rail system; cut sections are used. If the work zone is in a tunnel section Orientation and training of new employees; but near the beginning of an open cut section, or in an open Track patrol; cut section near the beginning of a tunnel, the flashing yellow Inspecting vehicles; and light or yellow flag are put further ahead of the work area than Quality assurance checks. usual. This will give the operator of an approaching subway vehicle an earlier warning. Under normal circumstances, employees may not walk alone on the mainline track and, when in a work group, When the work has been completed, the person in charge employees must keep in line of sight of each other. Employees must: are instructed to walk in the direction of the approaching trains, and at least one person in each crew or group may be supplied with a radio for direct communication with Transit Remove all track-level warning devices, beginning at Control (wayside). the leaving-end and working toward the approach-end flashing yellow light; Proceed with the work crew to the appropriate station; and Work Zones Advise Transit Control that employees are no longer at track level and cancel the work zone. In situations in which employees will be working at track level, work zones are used to protect employees. Employees can set up work zones at track level anywhere in the system. Minor Work Zones In the yards, however, some rules are different and are covered under a separate section of the rules. Minor work zones are appropriate when: There are three kinds of work zones: minor, major, and Work at any location will take less than 2 h; impassable. The kind of work zone to be set up depends on A minimum of two and no more than five people are in the type of work and how long it will take. Employees decide the crew; which work zone will give them the protection they need to Subway vehicle speed reduction in only one direction do their job safely. If employees are not sure which kind of will be required; and work zone they need while doing a specific job, they should Employees are sure that a minor work zone gives them discuss it with their foreperson or immediate supervisor. enough protection to do their work safely and to clear the track safely when a subway vehicle approaches. Under TTC rules, crews should stay inside the work area and use only yellow, green, and red lights or flags to mark a Setting up and using a minor work zone includes the work zone. Lights are used in the tunnel section, and flags in following: the open cut sections. In open cut sections, lights are used at night or when visibility is reduced by fog, snow, smoke, or 1. Call Transit Control to get permission to go to track level other conditions. and set up a minor work zone. The person requesting the work zone must also be the person to cancel that In all open cut sections during daylight hours, a flashing work zone, unless otherwise arranged. yellow light is placed between the running rails at least 500 ft 2. Obey all rules in "General Rules for Setting up Work ahead of the approach end of the work zone with a yellow Zones."

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34 3. Place a flashing yellow light at the approach end of the 3. Place a flashing yellow light at the beginning of the work zone. In open cut sections during daylight hours, work zone at the approach end of the track. In all open place a yellow flag, next to it. Place the light, or the light cut sections during daylight hours, place a yellow flag and flag, at least 500 ft from the work area. beside the track next to the flashing yellow light. Place 4. Place a red light or flag right in front of the work area the light or the light and flag at least 500 ft from the at the approach end. work area. 5. Give one member of the work crew the job of "watch- 4. Place two or more yellow lights or flags between the person." flashing yellow light and the start of the work area. 6. If permission has been granted by an authorized depart- Place these lights or flags at evenly spaced intervals, mental employee to allow subway vehicles to travel at on or next to the track. a greater speed, the 12 mph yellow maximum speed 5. Place a watchperson with a red light or flag between warning sign is placed immediately after the work area. the running rails immediately in front of the work area 7. Clear the track safely and quickly when a subway at the approach end of the track. vehicle approaches. 6. Place two additional yellow lights or flags beyond the work area for 100 m at the leaving end of the track, A watchperson at a minor work site has the following duties evenly spaced, 150 ft apart. and responsibilities: 7. Place a green light or flag at least 500 ft beyond the work area at the leaving end of the track. Place this 1. Tell the work crew when a subway vehicle is green light or flag on or next to the track. approaching; 8. If permission has been granted by an authorized 2. Make sure that everyone in the work crew is clear of departmental employee to allow subway vehicles to the tracks; travel at a greater speed, the 12 mph yellow maximum 3. Remove the red light or flag when everyone is clear; speed warning sign is placed immediately after the work and area. 4. Give the approved hand signals to direct the subway 9. Place warning lights or flags on the track opposite the vehicle operator through the work area, using a white/ work area, except in circular tunnel or box sections on red combination light, or a yellow flag during daylight the Sheppard Line. Place these warning lights or flags hours in open cut sections. as follows: Place a yellow light or flag at least 500 ft ahead of In a minor work zone, warning lights or flags should not the work area be placed on the track opposite the work zone. When a speed Place a green light or flag at least 500 ft beyond the reduction is required in both directions, the work area should work area be protected with a major work zone. If permission has been granted by an authorized departmental employee to allow subway vehicles to travel at a greater speed, on the track opposite of the Major Work Zones work area, where work is performed in one direc- tion only, place the 12 mph yellow maximum speed Major work zones are appropriate when: warning sign immediately after the yellow light. Employees' duties require them to work at the same A watchperson must be posted for any major work zone location longer than 2 h; or where visibility is reduced to less than 500 ft. The watch- There are six or more people in the work crew; person stands where it is possible to see an approaching train A speed reduction is required in both directions (i.e., and the work crew, and where the work crew can hear the working in the devil strip or center bench areas); and watchperson's air horn or whistle. The watchperson on a major Employees are sure that a major work zone gives them work zone has the following duties and responsibilities: enough protection to do their work safely and to clear the track safely when a subway vehicle approaches. Carry the following safety equipment: White/red combination light or flags to signal trains Setting up and using a major work zone includes the Air horn following: Whistle. Listen and watch for the approach of a train. 1. Call Transit Control to get permission to go to track level At the first sound or sight of a train, give a long blast on to set up a major work zone. The person who requests the the air horn. If the air horn does not work, use the whistle. work zone must also be the person to clear that work Make sure that the work crew and equipment are clear zone, unless otherwise arranged. of the tracks. 2. Obey all rules in "General Rules for Setting up Work Remove the red light or flag from the track only when Zones." the work crew is clear of the area.

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35 Use the white light or yellow flag to give approved hand revenue service hours and protected by a PTS at each end. signals to the train operator to proceed through the work Impassable work zones are appropriate when employees: area, if it is safe to do so. Give the "proceed" signal with the yellow flag in all open cut sections during daylight Cannot clear the track safely to allow trains to pass by hours. using any other type of work zone; Do not leave the working position until replaced by Need the extra protection of an impassable work zone; or another qualified employee. When work is being performed at track level by con- Do not perform any duties other than those of a watch- tractors. person. Setting up and using an impassable work zone entails the A second watchperson is required if: following: One watchperson cannot see both the flashing yellow 1. Call Transit Control to get permission to go to track light and the work crew clearly; or level to set up an impassable work zone. The work crew will not be able, for any reason, to hear 2. Obey all rules in "General Rules for Setting Up Work the first watchperson's air horn or whistle. Zones." 3. Place a PTSdouble red light combination on each The first watchperson stands where it is possible to see track that leads to the work area from any direction. If both the flashing yellow light and the second watchperson. possible, place each PTS at least 500 ft from the work The flashing yellow light or yellow flag and light must be area. If this is not possible, place the PTS as far away 500 ft ahead of the first watchperson. The second watchperson as possible. stands where it is possible to see both the first watchperson and 4. Place a flashing yellow light on each track that leads to the work crew. The second watchperson will also sound the a PTSdouble red light combination. Place the flashing horn or whistle when the first watchperson sounds the horn or yellow light at least 500 ft from the PTS at the approach whistle. The second watchperson must make sure that the work end. Place a yellow flag next to it in all open cut sections crew and equipment are clear of the tracks. The second watch- during daylight hours. person will then remove the closest red light or flag when it is 5. Place warning lights or flags on the track opposite an safe to proceed. The first watchperson will then remove the impassable work zone except in circular tube sections. other red light or flag and give an approved hand signal. Place a yellow light or flag at least 1,000 ft ahead of the work area. If the work crew will be leaving the work zone temporarily, 6. Place a green light or flag at least 1,000 ft beyond the the crew must inform Transit Control when it departs and work area, on the track opposite an impassable work when it returns. When the work crew, including the watch- zone, except in circular tube sections. person, leaves a major work zone while the job is in progress, the watchperson will: To ensure that an area is impassable, employees must note the following: Make sure that the work crew is clear of the tracks; Turn off the red light or remove the red flag; and Additional track-level safety devices may be needed in Switch the flashing yellow light to a steady yellow light. crossover and center track sections. If employees are not sure what safety measures to take, they should discuss When the work crew returns to the work area, the watch- the impassable work zone layout with their foreperson person will: or immediate supervisor before going to track level. The placement of PTSdouble red light combinations Switch the steady yellow light back to a flashing yellow may change in crossover and center track sections. light; Additional PTSdouble red light combinations may be Turn on the red light or replace the red flag; and needed in some locations. Inform Transit Control. When it is time to remove lights, the process begins at the Restricted Speed Track Areas leaving end and works towards the approach end flashing yellow light. A restricted speed track area is an area where trains are required to reduce speed. Under normal circumstances there are no workers in the area unless a walking inspection has been Impassable Work Zones authorized. Rail vehicles must slow down to 8 mph at the yellow light or flag and proceed at the default speed of 8 mph Impassable work zones are areas through which trains are or as indicated on the yellow speed sign, until the front of the unable to enter. They are usually established during non- train reaches the green light or flag at the leaving end of the

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36 area. If the yellow speed sign is not observed or is unclear, rail access. The crew member must clearly identify the work vehicles proceed at the default speed of 8 mph. On approach, location, the reason for access, and the number of people in operators must sound the horn with a long blast. If the operator the crew. The work crew will then stand by until the dispatcher stops in a restricted speed track area, the horn must be sounded gives permission to enter the area. After receiving clearance with two short blasts before moving (2, pp. 6.16.50). from the dispatcher, the work crew will safely enter the area. Upon completion of their tasks, the work crew will clear the area and notify the dispatcher, confirming that all personnel Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority are clear and in a safe location. MBTA's rules define five levels of protection for people Dispatcher Responsibilities Upon receiving a request from working on the ROW. Every ROW work site must be evaluated a work crew to enter a Level 1 area, the dispatcher obtains the and a determination made as to what level of flagging protec- name of the person requesting access, radio number, number tion is appropriate for the job. See Figure 18 for a summary of persons in the crew, area of access and reason for access. of the five levels of protection. The dispatcher will then confirm, via the Day Orders, that the crew has received prior authorization to access the area Level 1: Prohibited Access Area under Level 1 protection. If the work is not listed on the Day Orders, the dispatcher may deny access. In an emergency, the Under this level of protection, no access is permitted unless the dispatcher may authorize access under Level 1 regardless of individuals or work crews have exclusive access rights to the the Day Orders. work area. Signs are posted in prohibited access areas. Train traffic must be stopped before an individual or work crew All designated Level 1 areas are clearly marked with a enters the area. During service hours no access is permitted warning sign. However, Level 1 protection can be used in any until the Control Center dispatcher has confirmed that all area, not just those designated Level 1 areas, if circumstances vehicle movement has been suspended and the dispatcher require a heightened level of protection. The hazard assessment, has given exclusive access to the individual or work crew. which is required under all levels, provides the individual Substitute service will be provided, if needed. The dispatcher or work crew with the opportunity to examine the work site must confirm that the work area is clear prior to allowing any and determine if unusual circumstances warrant additional movement of work trains or high-rail equipment. After being protection. notified by the dispatcher that high-rail equipment is stationary and secure, work may commence. More than one work crew is allowed to be in a Level 1 work zone concurrently. However, each work crew must function as Work Crew Responsibilities One member of the crew must a separate unit and must follow all ROW rules, and each crew call the Control Center dispatcher to request permission for must possess and utilize its own personal protective equipment. FIGURE 18 MBTA levels of protection (Courtesy: MBTA).

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37 Level 2: Fixed Flagging Site the red flag across the tracks, trains must come to a complete stop and stand by for a signal from the flagger. This level of protection, the fixed flagging site, is for anyone (employee or contractor) working within 10 ft of the centerline Flagger 1 stands to the right side of the rail with a red of the tracks, including overhead or beneath, or for any work flag held across the tracks. activity involving equipment, such as a crane, that has the When flagger 2 observes an approaching vehicle, he or potential to foul the ROW, even if the equipment or crews are she directs the work crew to clear the ROW. working beyond 10 ft from the centerline of the track. When the vehicle has come to a complete stop, flagger 1 turns to make visual contact with flag 2 and waits for Level 2 Procedures Under Level 2 protection, 1,200 ft of flagger 2's "proceed" signal. warning devices is placed before the work area. A PTS on Flagger 2 confirms that all members of the work crew rapid transit lines or a warning device with a red flag on light have cleared the ROW, then gives the "proceed" signal rail lines is installed 500 ft before the work area. Flagger 1 is to flagger 1 by waving a yellow flag up and down. stationed 500 ft before the work area to remove and replace Flagger 1 removes the portable trip or the warning device the portable trip or the warning device with the red flag with with the red flag, then stands clear of the ROW and each passing vehicle. This flagger is also responsible for sig- gives the vehicle the proceed signal by waving a yellow naling to operators when to stop and when to proceed, and for flag up and down. watching the other flagger(s) for a signal when the work crew is clear of the ROW. Flagger 2 is stationed near the crew to Upon receiving the signal, the operator proceeds at restricted warn them of oncoming vehicles and to verify and signal speed until reaching the warning device with the green flag. to flagger 1 when the crew is safely clear of the ROW. On As soon as the vehicle has passed, flagger 1 immediately curved track, additional flaggers may be needed and must be reinstalls the portable trip on the running rail (rapid transit line stationed between flaggers 1 and 2 so that each flagger can only) or replaces the warning device with a red flag between see the flagger nearest to him or her in each direction. the running rails (light rail only) and holds a red flag across the tracks ready to stop the next vehicle. To set up a Level 2 site, flaggers 1 and 2 place a minimum of 13 warning devices beside the track, at 100-ft intervals, At times it may be impractical to set up a standard Level 2 1,200 ft before the work crew. The first warning device must work site, such as when the work site is within 1,200 ft of a contain a yellow flag. Flagger 1 places a red flag in the warn- station, platform, or intersection. To allow work to proceed ing device 500 ft before the work crew, placing this warning during service hours without reducing safety, vehicle speed device between the running rails (light rail only), and installs is restricted between the preceding station, platform, or inter- a portable trip on the track 500 ft before the work crew section and the work site. This ensures that all approaching (rapid transit line only). Flagger 2 places a warning device vehicles are prepared to stop before reaching the work site. with a green flag at least six car lengths beyond the work crew on the Red, Orange, and Blue Lines and at least three car To set up flagging in these situations, employees follow lengths beyond the work crew on the Green Line. Flagger 1 is all Level 2 procedures with the following adjustments: positioned 500 ft before the work area at the warning device with the red flag or portable trip and holds a red flag across An approved "Work Crew Ahead" warning sign is placed the tracks. Flagger 2 is positioned near the first person working at the end of the station platform before the work crew. in the crew closest to oncoming traffic. A warning device is placed at the end of the platform before the work site. Level 2 Flagging Procedures Flaggers can use air horns to The number of warning devices depends on the distance contact each other and to signal members of the work crew. between the preceding station and the work site. Flag- However, these audible signals cannot be used instead of ger 1 is stationed 500 ft before the work site or on the visual proceed signals. end of the preceding platform. If the work site is closer than 500 ft from the platform a "Work Crew Ahead" is Flagger 1--When the work site is properly set up and also placed on the beginning of the proceeding platform. he or she is ready to protect the work crew, signals to flagger 2. Figure 19 is a photograph of the Work Crew Ahead sign. Flagger 2--Does not allow the work crew to access the Figure 20 provides graphical representations of different ROW until: Level 2 work site configurations. The flagging site is properly set up Flaggers are prepared to protect the crew He or she has received the signal that flagger 1 is Level 3: Moving Flagging Site ready to protect the work site. In some cases, the nature of the work and the short time Upon viewing the warning device with a yellow flag, (less than 1 h at one location) it would take to complete the operators proceed at 10 mph. Upon reaching the flagger with work make it impractical to set up a Level 2 work site. To allow

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38 FIGURE 19 MBTA Work Crew Ahead sign (Courtesy: MBTA). this work to proceed during service hours without reducing safety and while ensuring the same level of protection as provided in Level 2, a Level 3 work site restricts vehicle speed in advance of the work site. This ensures that all vehicles approaching a Level 3 work site are prepared to stop before reaching the first flagger. Under Level 3 protection, at least four warning devices and a warning sign are used. One warning device and a sign are placed 1,200 ft in advance of the first work location or at the end of station before the work site, and one warning device (with a red flag in it) is placed between the running rails 500 ft before the work crew (or before a PTS on a rapid transit line). When the nearest station is less than 500 ft from the first work location, a warning sign is placed at the beginning of the station. The warning sign must be approved by the Safety Department and must include a warning of the work crew ahead and indicate that restricted speed is required. Flagger 1, stationed 500 ft before the work area (at the end of the nearest station if less than 500 ft from the work site), removes and replaces the portable trip or the warning device with the red flag with each passing vehicle. This flagger is also responsible for signaling to operators when to stop and when to proceed, and for watching the other flagger(s) for a signal when the work crew is clear of the ROW. FIGURE 20 MBTA Level 2 work site configurations (Courtesy: MBTA). Flagger 2 is stationed near the crew to warn them of oncoming vehicles and to verify and signal to flagger 1 when the crew is safely clear of the ROW. On curved track, addi- Level 4: Personnel on Foot tional flaggers may be stationed between flaggers 1 and 2 so that each flagger can see the nearest flagger in each Level 4 protection is used when a worker needs to perform a direction. task on the ROW that may distract him or her from remaining constantly aware of the inherent danger associated with being Level 3 flagging procedures are the same as Level 2 flagging on the tracks. In this situation, two or more workers are assigned procedures. See Figure 21 for a graphical representation how to the task. One worker completes the necessary tasks and the a Level 3 work site is set up. other is responsible for watching for traffic and acting as

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39 An employee or contractor is traveling to a safe point, such as inside a signal bungalow, vent fan room, or elevator room. A transportation employee is operating a switch on hand. The work being done, if any, requires no tools or equip- ment. Under Level 5 protection, the worker must be sure that the work activity or location does not inhibit him or her from being protected from all ROW hazards. Level 5 Procedures Personnel on foot are required to walk against the normal direction of vehicle travel whenever possible. They must remain constantly vigilant for oncoming FIGURE 21 MBTA Level 3 work site (Courtesy: MBTA). trains, and ensure that they have a clear view of approaching vehicles and, at any moment, can step clear and into a safe flagger at all times. To provide Level 4 protection, the work haven. The work location must not inhibit the workers from location must not prevent the workers from seeing oncoming seeing an oncoming vehicle and must provides safe havens. vehicles; safe havens must be available; and the work activ- The work activity must not utilize any equipment, other than ity must not utilize any equipment, other than hand tools, that hand tools, that would inhibit workers from protecting them- would inhibit the workers from protecting themselves from selves from ROW hazards. ROW hazards. As a train approaches, workers must stand clear of the tracks Level 4 Flagging Procedures One crew member must work and stay in a place of safety until the train is completely clear as the flagger to protect the crew. In Level 4, work crews of the area. Before returning to the ROW, they must check entering the ROW must set up a flashing light, lantern, or both directions for additional oncoming vehicles. If a person warning device approximately 100 ft before the work crew reaches a place where a curve in the track, vegetation, equip- (on curves the flashing light or lantern must be placed far ment, or anything else blocks the view of oncoming vehicles, enough before the crew so that it is visible to oncoming trains). he or she should leave the ROW and go around the area The flagger must be located a distance ahead of the protected (6, pp. 2037). worker(s) based on current circumstances, such as track alignment and noise, and remain at all times in visual and Maryland Transit Administration audible contact with the protected workers. This flagger's main responsibility is to watch continually for oncoming MTA must comply with FRA regulations because it shares vehicles and notify the crew immediately of an oncoming the ROW with a freight railroad. The levels of protection, vehicle. as well as the methodology for determining what level of protection to use and how to carry out the duties, respon- The flagger should be at least 25 ft from the other workers sibilities, and procedures for each level, are compliant with to ensure that he or she does not become involved in the CFR 214 subparts focusing on ROW worker safety. The work activity or distracted by other workers. Upon seeing an practice of track worker protection used by this system is oncoming train, the crew must immediately stop all work known as On-Track Protection. activity and clear the ROW. The flagger should attempt to stop oncoming trains until the work crew is clear of the The first step in determining the level of protection to be ROW. Unlike when approaching a Level 2 or 3 flagging site used is to determine the type of track in question. Controlled that is protected by a portable trip or warning devices, the Track is track upon which all movements of employees, vehicle may not be able to stop before the work crew, and trains, railroad maintenance machines and equipment must therefore the work crew must clear the ROW immediately. be authorized by a Control Center. Non-Controlled Track is track upon which employees, trains, railroad maintenance Level 5: Lone Person on Foot machines and equipment are permitted by MTA Light Rail operating rules or special instruction to move without receiving This level of protection is appropriate for a lone worker who authorization from a Control Center. is constantly vigilant in protecting himself or herself from the inherent danger of the ROW, and who assumes responsibil- The next step is to determine whether a work crew or a lone ity for his or her own safety. Other conditions for Level 5 worker will be protected. Figure 22 provides an overview of protection include: the decision matrix for MTA's On-Track Protection.

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40 FIGURE 22 On-Track Protection decision matrix (Courtesy: MTA). Alternative Protection the crew on the ROW, as well as an advance indication of approaching trains--in either direction--by using the Signal Department employees and crews on MTA have both ATP board at the interlocking. By controlling signals the ability and the authority to protect their work sites--which and speeds through the ATP, and directly (visually and are primarily at interlocking--through the localized use of verbally) communicating with the work crew, the signal the Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system. Under certain department employee can alert the crew to clear the levels of track protection the Signal Department employee tracks and, once safely done, can allow the train to pass can request and receive authority to assume control of the through the interlocking without ever stopping. This ATP system at the interlocking, an example of which is seen would not be possible if the employee had to rely solely in Figure 23. This allows the employee several options: on line-of-sight detection of train movement. The employee can control train movement by controlling The On-Track Protection matrix (see Figure 22) is designed the signals at the interlocking. This not only provides to help determine the types of protection available in a par- visual signaling to an operator that the site is occupied ticular situation. The types of protection available are: but also creates a situation whereby if a train were to "run" a signal, the ATP would bring the train to a stop, Exclusive Track Occupancy (ETO) just as in normal, system-wide, ATP operation. Foul Time (FT) The employee can control the speed of trains moving Train Coordination (TC) through the area. This is not possible through Control Inaccessible Track (IT) Center control of the system, but the technology installed Train Approach Warning (TAW) at each interlocking allows for speed controls, enforced Individual Train Detection (ITD). through the ATP, to be set for "normal" operation, and reset at the interlocking by a signal department Figure 24 summarizes the situations in which each type of employee, for other situations. This could be used when protection is used. signal crews are working on repairing or replacing impedance-bonds, signal wiring, or other system com- ponents. It could also be used to set speeds for operations Exclusive Track Occupancy other than signal department work, such as emergency service operations off of but alongside the ROW, or Exclusive Track Occupancy (ETO) is a method of establishing adverse weather conditions. working limits on controlled track in which the authority to Efficient and safe operations using this method actually move trains and other equipment is transferred by Light Rail allow a signal department employee in the electrical shed Control (LRC) to the OSC. In tunnels, where side clearance at the interlocking to have both visual connections with is limited and no other places of safety are provided, the OSC

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41 must arrange for the use of the track through ETO as protection against approaching trains. The authority for ETO given to the OSC will be transmitted on a written or printed document and by oral communication to the OSC by LRC. OTCs obtain permission to establish ETO by calling LRC using a radio or cell phone and providing a description of the work to be performed, the work limits by chain marker or station, the radio call number, and the call numbers of the crew. Employees cannot enter the mainline until LRC gives them instructions to do so. When authority for ETO is transmitted orally, the OSC must repeat the transmission to LRC for verification. The OSC in charge of the working limits maintains possession of the written or printed authority. MTA Light Rail makes a written or electronic record of all authorities issued to establish ETO. The extent of working limits established through ETO is defined by one or more of the following physical features clearly identifiable to a light rail vehicle operator, locomotive operator or other person operating railroad equipment: A flagger with instructions and capability to hold all trains and equipment clear of the working limits; Fixed signals displaying "Stop and Stay"; A 5 mph Approach Speed Limit Sign and Work Limit Stop Sign where the OSC prohibits vehicle movement. The vehicle can only proceed when permission is given by the OSC. When permission is given, the vehicle must not exceed restricted speed through the work limits; and A clearly identifiable barricade prescribed by the MTA Light Rail operating rules that trains may not pass without proper authority. Movements of trains and railroad maintenance machines within working limits established through ETO are permitted only under the direction of the OSC. Such movements are at restricted speed, unless the OSC has specifically authorized a higher speed. Foul Time Foul Time (FT) is a method of establishing working limits on controlled track in which a railroad worker is notified by LRC that no trains will operate within a specific segment of controlled track until the railroad worker reports clear of the track. FIGURE 23 MTA interlocking signal shed and components. Speed control settings for each track within area of interlocking Working limits established on controlled track through (top). MAS is maximum allowable speed for each track. Control the use of FT must comply with the following requirements: board for interlocking within interlocking shed (center). Interlocking shed along the MTA ROW (bottom) Foul Time is given orally by LRC only after LRC has (Photos: Chris Kozub). withheld the authority of all trains to move into or within the working limits during the FT period.

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42 TYPES OF TRACK TYPES OF PROTECTION Controlled Track Non - Controlled Track Work crew Lone Work crew Lone Exclusive Track Occupancy (ETO) Foul Time (FT) Train Coordination (TC) Inaccessible Track (IT) Train Approach Warning (TAW) Individual Train Detection (ITD) FIGURE 24 MTA types of track protection (Courtesy: MTA). Employees obtain permission to establish FT from LRC. call number, as well as the call numbers of the other They must call LRC via radio or cell phone and give employees in the crew. their radio call number and the call numbers of other employees in the crew, a description of the work to be Employees cannot enter the mainline until LRC gives performed, the amount of FT being requested, and the instructions to do so. Each OSC to whom TC is transmitted working limits by chain marker or station. orally must repeat the track number, track limits, and time limits of the TC to LRC for verification before TC becomes Employees cannot enter the mainline until LRC gives them effective. instructions to do so. OSC to whom FT is transmitted orally must repeat the track number, track limits, and time limits The OSC who establishes working limits on controlled of the FT to LRC for verification before the FT becomes track by TC must communicate with the train operator and effective. determine that: LRC will not permit the movement of trains or other The train is visible to the OSC who is establishing the on-track equipment into the working limits protected by FT working limits. until the OSC who obtained the FT has reported clear of the The train has stopped. track. FT is a simplified method of establishing working limits. Further movements of the train will be made only as It is distinguished from ETO by not requiring a written copy permitted by the OSC of the working limits while the of the authorization, and by not requiring any flaggers, signal working limits remain in effect. control, stop signs, or barricades. The train operator will give up authority to move when the OSC of the working limits has released the working Train Coordination limits to LRC. Train Coordination (TC) is a method of establishing working limits on track upon which a train holds exclusive authority Inaccessible Track to move, whereby the crew of that train yields that authority to a railroad worker. Working limits are established on controlled Inaccessible Track (IT) is a method of establishing working track by an OSC through the use of TC according to the fol- limits on non-controlled track by physically preventing entry lowing requirements: and movement of trains and equipment. Working limits on non-controlled track are established by rendering the track TC is within the segments of track(s) upon which only that is within working limits physically inaccessible to trains one train holds authority to move. at each possible point of entry by at least one of the following The OSC obtains permission to establish TC by calling features: the LRC using radio or cell phone and providing a description of the work to be performed, the working Flaggers with instructions and capability to hold all trains limits by chain marker or station, and his or her radio and equipment clear of the working limits;

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43 A switch or derail aligned to prevent access to the work- the work to be performed, location by chain marker or station, ing limits and secured with an effective securing device his or her radio call number, and the call numbers of the other by the OSC of the working limits; employees in the crew. Employees cannot enter the mainline A discontinuity in the rail that precludes passage of trains until LRC gives them instructions to do so. OSCs are to repeat or locomotives into the working limits; or back any instructions received from LRC before entering yard Working limits on controlled track that connects directly or mainline tracks. When the work is complete, all personnel, with the IT established by the OSC of the working lim- tools, and equipment must not foul the track, and LRC must its on the IT. be notified that the crew is clear of all mainline tracks. Before two or more employees who are working together foul a track LRC will secure a remotely controlled switch aligned to using TAW, they must establish sufficient lookout, one in each prevent movement by: direction or one in both directions, for approaching trains. Applying a blocking device or a clamping device to TAW will be given in sufficient time to enable each remove power from the switch motor; and employee to move to and occupy a previously arranged place Notifying the OSC that protection has been provided. of safety. The watchperson must warn the work crew in sufficient time to enable them to be clear of the tracks at least LRC will not remove the protection until receiving per- 15 s before the train (moving at the maximum authorized speed) mission from the OSC. reaches their point of work. Watchpersons assigned to provide TAW must devote full attention to detecting the approach of The authority for IT is given to the OSC of the working trains and communicating a warning, and must not be assigned limits on a written or printed document and by oral commu- any other duties while functioning as watchperson. nication from LRC. OSCs obtain permission by calling LRC using radio or cell phone and providing a description of the The means used by watchpersons to communicate a TAW work to be performed, the working limits by chain marker or must be distinctive and must clearly signify to all recipients station, and his or her radio call number and the call numbers of the warning that a train or other on-track equipment is of the other employees in the crew. approaching. Every employee who depends on TAW for on-track safety must maintain a position that will enable him Employees cannot enter the mainline until LRC gives them or her to receive a TAW signal communicated by the watch- instructions to do so. When authority for IT is transmitted person at any time while on-track safety is provided by TAW. orally, the OSC will repeat the transmission to LRC for verification. The OSC in charge of the working limits will Watchpersons shall communicate TAW by a means that maintain possession of the written or printed authority. Trains does not require a warned employee to be looking in any and railroad maintenance machines within working limits particular direction at the time of the warning, and the warned established by means of IT will move only under the direction employee, regardless of noise or distraction of work, can detect of the OSC, and must move at restricted speed. No operable the warning signal. A watchperson will, if practical, be stationed locomotives or other items of on-track equipment, except clear of all tracks at a point where he or she will have the best those present or moving under the direction of the OSC of the view of approaching trains in both directions. Also, the watch- working limits, can be located within working limits estab- person will be a sufficient distance from the work crew to lished by means of IT. prevent attention being distracted by the work, but not farther than his or her audible warning can be distinctly heard. Train Approach Warning Individual Train Detection Train Approach Warning (TAW) is a method of establishing on-track safety by providing watchpersons to look out for Individual Train Detection (ITD) is a procedure that permits a approaching trains. Watchpersons will warn the work crew lone worker to acquire on-track safety by seeing an approach- early enough to allow them to be in the clear at least 15 s ing train and leaving the track 15 s before it arrives. ITD may before the train reaches the point of work. This will allow the be used only under circumstances strictly defined in the work crew time to move to or remain in a place of safety. In Railroad Worker Protection Manual. using TAW, railroad workers who foul any track outside of working limits (working limits are not established) shall be Individual Train Detection may be used to establish on-track given warning of approaching trains and other on-track safety only: equipment by one or more watchpersons. By a lone worker who has been trained, qualified, and Before an employee fouls the tracks using TAW, the OSC designated by the MTA Light Rail Training Department; must obtain permission to enter mainline tracks by calling the While performing routine inspection and minor correction LRC using radio or cell phone and providing a description of work;