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54 GLOSSARY Adjacent tracks--Two or more tracks with track centers spaced High-rail vehicle--Truck or automobile with retractable less than 25 ft apart. flanged wheels that permit it to be used on either roads or Approach end--Direction from which trains will come toward tracks. a work zone, toward employees walking along the track, Inaccessible track--Method of establishing working limits or entering a station in normal direction of travel. on non-controlled track by physically preventing entry and Automatic Train Protection (ATP)--System that continuously movement of trains and equipment. displays the maximum authorized speed, actual speed, and Individual train detection--Procedure that permits a lone operating mode, and enforces compliance with the speed worker to acquire on-track safety by seeing approaching by an audible warning and an application of the brakes if trains and leaving the track 15 s before a rail vehicle or the speed is exceeded. track maintenance machine arrives. Block--Length of track with defined limits, on which train Interlocking--Arrangement of signals and signal appliances movements are governed by an automatic block signal interconnected so that their movements must succeed each system or by instruction of the Control Center. other in a prearranged sequence. Permits vehicles to pass Clear of all mainline tracks--Distance of not less than 7.5 ft safely from single track to double track and vice versa. outside the rail (10 ft from the centerline) of all mainline Job/site briefing--Discussion conducted with a work crew tracks, unless track center spacing is 25 ft or more. prior to the start of work on the ROW that includes infor- Controlled point--Location at which signals are controlled mation on the means by which on-track safety is to be automatically or manually. provided, and instruction on the safety procedures to be Controlled track--Track upon which a railroad's operating followed. rules require that all movements of employees, roadway Light rail vehicle--Transit vehicle with AC propulsion utilized maintenance machines, equipment, and trains must be for transportation of patrons. authorized by the Rail Control Center. Locomotive--One or more units propelled by any form of Crossover--Switches and tracks arranged to provide a route energy, operated from a single control, and used in train or from one track to another. yard service. Devil strip--Narrow area between opposite direction tracks Lone worker--Individual worker who is not being afforded where there are no pillars or center bench. on-track safety protection by another worker, is not a Emergency stop--Button that activates track brakes, emer- member of a work crew, and is not engaged in a common gency friction brakes, and track sanding to bring the rail task with another worker. vehicle to a quick, irretrievable stop. Mainline track--Track where scheduled trains are operated. Equipment--Any machinery that is utilized on the track, Niche--Indentation in a tunnel sidewall that provides a safe highway, or elsewhere. haven for authorized personnel working on the right of Exclusive track occupancy--Method of establishing working way to ensure clearance of oncoming vehicle traffic. limits on controlled track in which the authority to move Non-controlled track--Track upon which employees, trains trains and other equipment is transferred by Light Rail and roadway maintenance machines and equipment are Control to the on-site coordinator. permitted to move without receiving authorization from Fixed signal--Signal of fixed location along the track indicat- Rail Control Center. ing a condition affecting the movement of a train. May be On-site coordinator--Trained and qualified employee who a block signal, speed limit sign, slow zone disc, or any communicates with the Rail Control Center and designates other type of signal. the working limits, type of on-track safety to be used, Flagger or flagperson--Person dedicated to protecting work and assigning and positioning of work crew, flaggers, and crews by watching for oncoming vehicles and following watchpersons/lookouts. The on-site coordinator conducts prescribed procedures to assure that vehicles do not enter the job briefing before any roadway worker fouls the track. work areas until all workers are off the ROW. Flaggers are in Open cut sections--Sections of subway or light rail track charge of assuring safe passage of vehicles past work sites. area that are not in a tunnel. Foul time--Method of establishing working limits on con- Out of service (track)--Section of track that is not safe for trolled track, in accordance with Roadway Worker Protection operation, or is restricted from use as a result of maintenance. Rules, in which a roadway worker is notified by the Rail Personal protective equipment (PPE)--Clothing, equipment, Control Center that no trains will operate within a specific and accessories designed to provide a barrier against segment of controlled track until the roadway worker workplace hazards. When used properly, protects workers reports clear of the track. against known hazards. Fouling a track--Placement of an individual or equipment in Portable train/trip stop--Device that attaches to rails that will such proximity to a track that the individual or equipment cause the train to enter emergency brake mode in the event could be struck by a moving train or on-track equipment. that an operator fails to obey the signal system or flagger.

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55 Qualified employee--Person who has been formally tested and Track switch--Device used to divert vehicles from one track approved within the length of time required for a specific to another. purpose by an authorized representative of the employer. Traction power--Electrical power that makes subway and Regular train--Train designated by schedule. light rail vehicles move. Supplied through the traction power Restricted speed track areas--Area in which subway/light rail(s). When traction power is on, the traction power rail(s) rail vehicles are required to reduce speed. Under normal are "live." circumstances there are no workers in the area unless a Traction power interruption--May occur because power has "walking inspection" has been granted. been cut at an emergency alarm station or because some- Right-of-way--mixed street--Trackway located in a street thing is wrong with the electrical supply. When traction lane that is reserved for the use of trains. Motor vehicles may power is off, the traction power rail(s) should still be treated use the trackway lane when necessary to pass an obstruction. as if they were live. Right-of-way--private--Trackway reserved for the exclusive Train operator--Employee who controls the movement of use of trains, which may include grade crossings. the train. Roadway worker--Employee or contractor performing job Trip/train stop--System of on-board and wayside equipment functions on a railroad's ROW. Also referred to as railway that automatically stops a rail vehicle when a stop signal is worker, railroad worker, and track worker. passed. Roadway Worker Protection Manual--Rules and instruc- Warning device--Cone, flag, lantern, strobe light, flashing tions issued in a book under this title containing safety and light, or other device, which has been approved by an operating rules to define the responsibilities of on-track agency, that warns vehicle operators that they are approach- workers and procedures for protecting them. ing personnel on or near the right of way. Running rails--Rails comprising the track upon which a Watchperson/lookout--Employee who has been annually train moves. trained and qualified to provide warning to roadway workers Signals--Illuminated colored aspects (or lights) that give of approaching trains or on-track equipment. Should be information to the operator about speed, routing, and train properly equipped to provide visual and auditory warning, operations. with whistle, air horn, white disc, red flag, lantern, or fuse. Signal violation--Occurs when a subway or light rail vehicle Sole duty is to look out for approaching trains and on-track operator does not obey a restrictive signal. This may involve equipment and provide at least 15 s advanced warning to a signal train stop contact or the front of the subway employees. vehicle going past the signal without tripping. Work area--Part of a work zone where work is being done. Subway vehicle--Passenger trains, work car vehicles, or any Work crew--Group of two or more individuals working as other vehicle that operates in the subway system. part of a team within a specified work zone. Third rail--Energized rail, the source of 600 V of electricity Work zone--Area identified with lights or track level warning that power rail transit vehicles. devices signifying employees working at track level. Track--Space between the rails and a space of not less than Yard--System of tracks used for the making up of trains and 7.5 ft outside each rail (10 ft from the centerline). storing of cars, upon which movements must be made in Track equipment--Self-propelled or other equipment or yard mode, at yard speed, subject to applicable rules and machinery when used on the track. special instructions. Track level--Any location off the station platform, past the end Yard area--Area where trains are stored, repaired, or main- gate, wall to wall (any part of the tunnel structure), fence to tained. fence (any property between the fences in an open cut area), Yard tracks--All tracks used for car storage, repair, or other or any catwalk not protected by a yellow railing. purposes.