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9 The agencies interviewed also require some form of struc- combinations of curriculum and certification/recertification tured review process to ensure that the oversight is provided. processes for the target audiences. Generally, the training This usually involves a job site supervisor or foreman complet- focused on three main topics: ing some form of safety checklist before the commencement of work. These range from checklists to verify that workers General hazards associated with working on, around, or have the required PPE to a more detailed evaluation of job near the ROW; site safety concerns. In addition, all the agencies require Employee responsibilities and the specific ROW rules; supervisors to conduct some form of job-site monitoring. and Flagging procedures. MBTA chief inspectors and area supervisors are required to conduct field observations of each flagging site in their A summary of the ROW training efforts at each agency area of responsibility every day. MTA supervisors are tasked follows. with completing one Railroad Worker Protection Monitoring Report per month. Depending on the department, TTC Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority supervisors are required to complete two to eight Job Safety Observations per month. Supervisors at NYCT must inspect The Operations Training Department is the agency lead for each gang that is performing full flagging once per shift. Gangs developing and delivering all track safety-related courses whose normal job duties are performed under point-to-point based on the ROW Safety Rule Book, including flagging flagging are randomly inspected at least once every 5 days. training and other pertinent information provided to them. In addition to identifying rule violations, NYCT's supervisor Labormanagement committees review the course pilots. training encourages supervisors to use the monitoring process Current offerings are described here. to acknowledge employees who are observed working safely. The agency believes that positive reinforcement can influence rule compliance and nurture the organization's safety culture. ROW Rules Training and Certification The supervisory person conducting the review in all cases This is an 8-h, instructor-led course that includes 6 h of ROW has the authority to remove a worker from the work site or Hazards and Rules training and a 2-h Occupational Safety shut down the entire operation if employees are found to be and Health Administration presentation from the Safety in violation of the rules. Work can resume upon correction of Department. The entire course is delivered in the classroom. the violation(s). Disciplinary actions can range from a verbal All job classifications governed by ROW rules must com- warning if an employee is missing a piece of required equip- plete the training and score above 70% on a test to receive a ment to formal action in accordance with the agency's progres- certification card. Employees and contractors must carry sive discipline policy. Interviews with supervisory personnel their certification cards at all times on the ROW. The card is revealed differences in the seriousness with which minor listed in the rules as one of the agency's essential pieces of PPE. infractions were handled. Hourly employees at agencies with This training is conducted as part of new ROW employees' stricter enforcement complained about the lack of discretion orientation. Employees promoted into MOW classifications exercised by supervisors in enforcing the rules, but at the same requiring the training take the course before assuming their time acknowledged real improvements in the organization's new duties. Course participants are given two chances to pass safety culture. the test. Those not passing after two tries must repeat the full- day course. Some of the agencies interviewed also had formal processes in place to use the information collected to help evaluate and All employees and contractors must complete recertification training every 2 years. The recertification training is a 4-h, improve the overall effectiveness of their roadway worker instructor-led course conducted in the classroom. It is essen- protection efforts. MBTA requires the monitoring forms to be tially a repeat of the rules component of the initial full-day sent to the operating division chiefs for review and potential course. corrective actions. Similarly, the NYCT Division of Subways produces quarterly reports that outline the violations observed The ROW Rule Training and Recertification classes are and corrective actions. These reports are provided to the Office mixed with operations, ROW maintenance, and contractors of System Safety and reviewed with workers at quarterly except for the courses given in Spanish to meet the needs of operating unit meetings. contractors. The instructors are usually former inspectors. The course is updated every time a new rule book is issued, TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION but interim changes are covered in the class deliveries. All of the agencies interviewed provided some form of All MBTA employees and contractors attending the training, certification, and recertification related to roadway course are asked to complete a training evaluation form. worker protection. However, each agency reported different The completed evaluations are reviewed by the Operations

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10 Training Department and shared with the operating units. of the OSC training for recertification purposes. Employees In a few instances, feedback received on the training eval- can complete the required training and end-of-course test uation forms led to the reassessment and modification of the online from home. Those opting to complete the refresher ROW rules. training online are not compensated for their time. Employees taking advantage of this option do so to avoid having to sit in class for an entire day. Flagging Training All operators and MOW employees are required to take New York City Transit flagging training. Contractors do not receive flagging training. A flagging team composed of MBTA operators is assigned to The Operations Training Department is the agency lead for each contractor job. Contractors are not allowed to provide developing and delivering all track-safety-related courses their own flagging protection. based on the Employee Rule Book and other pertinent infor- mation provided to them. The courses are described here. Flagging training consists of a 2-day course of which approximately 75% is conducted in the field. All MOW employees and train operators, supervisors, and managers Track Safety Training take flagging training. Students must achieve 100% on the test. If a person does not score 100%, an instructor will work This is an 8-h, instructor-led course. Approximately half with him or her to clear up any issues and prepare to retake of the time is spent in the classroom and the other half is the test. The Operations Training Department also developed spent on the ROW. All personnel who must enter the ROW, this training and updates it as necessary. There is no formal including MOW and Rapid Transit Operations employees, certification or recertification process or documents associated must complete the training and score above 70% on the test to with completing flagging training. receive their certification card. Certification cards are required to be carried at all times on the ROW. People hired into the job classifications that require Track Safety certification are Maryland Transit Administration scheduled for the course as part of their orientation training. Employees promoted into classifications requiring the training Once every calendar year, the MTA Training Department take the course before assuming their new duties. Employees provides all roadway workers initial and refresher training on are given three chances to pass the test. Those not passing the on-track safety rules and procedures that the workers are after three tries are not permitted to enter the ROW. required to follow. Light rail employees other than roadway workers (whose primary duties concern the movement and All employees and contractors must complete recertification protection of trains) are trained to perform their functions training every 2 years, except personnel who successfully related to On-Track Safety as part of their operating qualifi- completed flagging refresher training in the past year. The cation training. recertification training is an 8-h, instructor-led course con- ducted in the classroom. The recertification training is different MTA ROW safety training is divided into three modules: from the initial track safety training and includes class dis- basic ROW rules, a flagmen/watchmen module, and an cussions and interactivities that highlight specific safety issues. on-site coordinator (OSC) module. The OSC module includes the detailed information on levels of protection that is usually covered in the separate flagging training at other agencies. Flagging Training ROW employees and contractor supervisory personnel receive all three modules. Upon completion of this 8-h training All MOW employees and train conductors who choose to program, participants must score 80% or higher on the test to serve as flaggers for construction crews are required to take be certified as an OSC. The nonsupervisory-level contractor flagging training. This is a 9-day course with a significant employees are provided with the basic ROW rules and flagmen/ "hands-on" component. The 9-day course consists of 3 days watchmen modules only. Upon completion of this 6-h training of class instruction, 5 days posting with experienced flaggers, program, participants must score 80% or higher to be certified and a 1-day final exam. Point-to-point flagging involving as flagmen/watchmen. The difference between an OSC and small moving work crews and near-miss incident reporting flagmen/watchmen is that an OSC is responsible for the requirements are incorporated into the training. Students on-track safety of work crews. The OSC establishes working must score 100% on the test to pass the course. If a person is limits and assigns and supervises flagmen/watchmen. unable to score 100% after three attempts, he or she is not permitted to perform flagging. Requalification requires the ROW employees and contractors must repeat the OSC successful completion of a 1-day refresher course each year. or flagmen/watchmen training each year to maintain their Employees who successfully complete the annual Flagging certification. A successful practice that MTA has recently Refresher Course are not required to attend the Track Safety implemented is offering employees a computer-based version Refresher course.

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11 The implementation of standardized flagging training the test be administered orally. Employees who do not pass and the 1-day flagging refresher course was a direct result of the test are retrained and permitted to retake the test. New NYCT's Track Safety Task Force. Previously, different divi- employees unable to pass the test are dismissed. Existing sions had their own interpretations of flagging rules, training employees are reassigned to their original positions that do programs differed, and only some employees received refresher not involve them working at track level. training. In addition to the ROW rules training, all TTC personnel The Track Safety and Flagging curriculum is updated on at the foreperson or higher level are expected to attend a an as-needed basis. Frequently after a near miss or accident, the 3-day Risk Assessment course offered at a local university. course scenarios are updated to incorporate "lessons learned" The purpose of this training is to provide all supervisory from the incident. The last major overhaul of the training was personnel with the skills and knowledge to identify and mit- in 2008 and was a result of the Track Safety Task Force efforts. igate potential safety hazards in the work environment. TTC The training was revised to make it more interactive and personnel interviewed indicated they had benefited from engaging. For example, the Track Safety training refresher was participation in the course. changed from a 20-min video to a full-day interactive course. The course instructors are former operations employees with an aptitude and an interest in teaching. Work Practice Modification/Relocation TTC is taking steps to modify work practices on both the Toronto Transit Commission subway (heavy rail) and the SRT (intermediate capacity rail) operations, which will reduce some employee risk exposure All employees and contractor personnel who are required to levels. On the subway lines, TTC has relocated the car-cleaning work at track level must be rule book trained and certified, and functions from storage and service yards to end-of-line must carry proof of certification. All ROW employees attend a terminals. The relocation removes these employees from the 2-day course that addresses ROW hazards, ROW rules, and yard environment, including the hazards of train movement flagging procedures. There is no separate flagging training or and walking at grade with third-rail power. Cleaners will work certification requirement. The ROW rules training includes at terminals where they will access trains from platforms, both classroom instruction and field experience encompass- eliminating the need to use step rails and grab irons to climb ing a walk from station to station in a tunnel to get a feel onto trains. for the environment. Participants must score 80% or higher to receive rule book certification. However, there are some The system also installed walkways in the yards to allow "safety critical" questions that must be answered correctly to employees to walk through yards to storage tracks without pass the test. Rule book-certified ROW employees are re- stepping over third rails or walking in track-fouling areas. certified annually by participating in a 1-day refresher training TTC is examining the feasibility of installing some platforms course and scoring 80% or higher on the exam. in the system's three storage yards to ease access for the mechanical employees and switch-yard operators who still ROW rules training is integrated into TTC's 31-day new need to access train interiors within the yard limits. Another operator training program. The content is the same as what is measure has been included in the design of the latest rolling taught to the ROW employees. Operators must be recertified stock. The semipermanently connected six-car train sets, named every 3 years. "Rockets," have ergonomically improved step rails and grab irons at the cab locations, allowing easier and safer access to Contractors receive a shorter (1-day) version of the course the interior. The "Rockets" also include new forward-facing and must also receive a score of 80% or higher on the end-of- indicator lights on the cab fronts that begin flashing when the course test. Unless there is an emergency situation, all contract operator sounds the horn. The lights will switch to steady mode work is carried out in impassable work zones outside revenue when the brakes are being applied. This provides an additional service hours or by isolating the contract employees from layer of communication and will let track-level workers know track level through hoarding. All contract work carried out at that the operator has observed and acknowledged the workers track level must be set up and supervised at all times by a rule and work zone warning flags. book-certified TTC employee. On TTC's streetcar operation a necessary maintenance Toronto Police Service Transit Enforcement Officers are practice has been modified through the customization and provided with a 2-day training program that provides officers application of commercially available cleaning equipment. with vehicle safety features familiarization, door operations, Previously, the switch points and frogs of in-street tracks and track-level tours. were cleaned by a two-person crew who traveled the line in a work truck. At each switch they would stop the truck, and All TTC training is conducted in English. The certification one worker would manually sweep the switch while the other tests are also in English only, but employees can request that would flag motor vehicle traffic around the site. The system