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27 REFERENCES (Also included are references cited in Appendix C.) American Association of State Highway and Transportation Soils," Journal of Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Officials (AASHTO), LRFD Bridge Design Manual, 4th Engineering, Vol. 126, No. 10, 2002, pp. 859869. ed., AASHTO, Washington, D.C., 2009. Assimaki, D., W. Li, J.H. Steidl, and K. Tsuda, "Site Ampli- American Association of State Highway and Transportation fication and Attenuation via Downhole Array Seismo- Officials (AASHTO), Load and Resistance Factor gram Inversion: A Comparative Study of the 2003 Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifications, 5th ed., Miyagi-Oki Aftershock Sequence," Bulletin of the Seis- AASHTO, Washington. D.C., 2010a. mological Society of America, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2008, pp. 301330. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Guide Specification for Seismic Assimaki, D., W. Li, J. Steidel, and J. Schmedes, "Quantify- Isolation Design, 3rd ed., AASHTO, Washington. D.C., ing Nonlinearity Susceptibility via Site-Response Mod- 2010b. eling Uncertainty at Three Sites in the Los Angeles Basin," Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, ABAQUS, "ABAQUS/Standard, A General Purpose Finite Vol. 98, No. 5, 2009, pp. 23642390. Element Code," ABAQUS, Inc., formerly Hibbitt, Karls- son & Sorensen, Inc., Pawtucket, R.I., 2005. Assimaki, D. and J. Steidl, "Inverse Analysis of Weak and Strong Motion Downhole Array Data from the Mw 7.0 Abrahamson, N.A., "Non-stationary Spectral Matching," Seis- SanrikuMinami Earthquake," Soil Dynamics and mological Research Letters, Vol. 63, No. 1, 1992, 30 pp. Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 27, 2007, pp. 7392. Abrahamson, N.A., "Spectral Matching Using RSP- Baker, J.W., "The Conditional Mean Spectrum: Tool for MATCH," Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Ground Motion Selection," Journal of Structural Engi- Soil Dynamics IV, Geotechnical Special Publication No. neering, Vol. 137, No. 3, 2011, pp. 322331. 181, ASCE-Geo-Institute, Sacramento, Calif., 2008. Baker, J.W. and C.A. Cornell, "Spectral Shape, Epsilon and Abrahamson, N., et al., "Comparisons of the NGA Ground- Record Selection," Earthquake Engineering and Struc- Motion Relations," Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 24, No. 1, tural Dynamics, Vol. 35, No. 9, 2006, pp. 10771095. 2008, pp. 4566. Baker, J.W., T. Lin, S.K. Shahi, and N. Jayaram, New Ground Abrahamson, N. and W. Silva, "Summary of the Abraham- Motion Selection Procedures and Selected Motions for son & Silva NGA Ground-motion Relations," Earthquake the PEER Transportation Research Program, PEER Spectra, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2008, pp. 6797. 2011/03 report, 2011. Al Atik, L. and N. Abrahamson, "Nonlinear Site Response Baturay, M.B. and J.P. Stewart, "Uncertainty and Bias in Effects on the Standard Deviations of Predicted Ground Ground-Motion Estimates from Ground Response Anal- Motions," Bulletin of the Seismological Society of Amer- yses," Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, ica, Vol. 100, No. 3, 2010, pp. 12881292. Vol. 93, No. 5, pp. 20252042, Oct. 2003. Anderson, D.G., S. Shin, and S.L. Kramer, "Observation from Bardet, J.P., K. Ichii, and C.H. Lin, EERA--A Computer Pro- Nonlinear, Effective-Stress Ground Motion Response gram for Equivalent-linear Earthquake Site Response Analyses Following the AASHTO Guide Specific for Analyses of Layered Soil Deposits, Department of Civil LRFD Seismic Bridge Design," Proceedings, TRB 2011 Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Annual Meeting, Jan. 2326, 2011, 19 pp. Angeles, 2000. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Minimum Bardet, J.P. and T. Tobita, NERA--A Computer Program for Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE Nonlinear Earthquake Site Response Analyses of Lay- Standard ASCE/SEI 7-05, ASCE, Reston, Va., 2006 ered Soil Deposits, Research Report, Department of Civil Assimaki, D. and E. Kausel, "An Equivalent-Linear Algo- Engineering, University of Southern California, Los rithm with Frequency- and Pressure-Dependent Moduli Angeles, 2001. and Damping for the Seismic Analysis of Deep Sites," Beaty, M. and P.M. Byrne, "An Effective-stress Model for Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 22, No. Predicting Liquefaction Behavior of Sand," in Geotech- 3, 2002, pp. 959965. nical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics III, P. Assimaki, D., E. Kausel, and A.J. Whittle, "Model for Dakoulas, M. Yegian, and R. Holtz, Eds., ASCE, Geo- Dynamic Shear Modulus and Damping for Granular technical Special Publication 75, Vol. 1, 1998, pp. 766777.

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