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39 GLOSSARY Aloop: Area of hysteresis loop CPT: Cone Penetration Test [C]: velocity proportional damping matrix CSR: Cyclic Stress Ratio f1 and f2, f3, f4: Frequencies for Rayleigh viscous damping DOT: Department of transportation G : Shear modulus DSHA: Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis Gmax: Maximum shear modulus (usually obtained from DSS: (cyclic) Direct Simple Shear (test) shear wave velocity) EL: Equivalent-Linear h, hi: thickness of layer EPRI: Electric Power Research Institute [K ]: stiffness matrix GMPE: Ground Motion Prediction Equation k, k i: element of stiffness matrix IBC: International Building Code [M ]: Mass matrix LRFD: Load and Resistance Factor Design m: element of mass matrix MCE: Maximum Considered Earthquake qc: uncorrected tip resistance from CPT sounding MR: Modulus Re-matching only with extended Masing rule Su: undrained shear strength of soil MRD: approximate match of both modulus and damping To: Fundamental period of a soil column or structure with extended Masing rule {u}: displacement vector MRDF: Modulus reduction and damping matching with non-Masing rule Vs: Shear wave velocity NGA: Next Generation Attenuation (relationship) Vs30: (average) shear wave velocity of the top 30 meters NL: Nonlinear R : Rayleigh damping coefficient PEER: Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center : damping or coefficient in Newmark-type numerical inte- gration of equation of motion PI: Principal Investigator R : Rayleigh damping coefficient PSHA: Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis : shear strain pwp: pore water pressure c: cyclic shear strain ReMI: Refraction Microtremor c: cyclic shear stress RVT: Random Vibration Theory tar: Target damping ratio SASW: Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves : Wilson time stepping coefficient sCPT: seismic Cone Penetration Test : mass density of soil SFSI: Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction (the same as SSI: Soil-Structure-Interaction) 1-D: One dimensional SPT: Standard Penetration Test 2-D: Two dimensional SSI: Soil-Structure Interaction 3-D: Three dimensional UHRS: Uniform Hazard Response Spectrum CMS: Conditional Mean Spectrum USAEC: United States Corps of Engineers COSMOS: The Consortium of Organizations for Strong- Motion Observation Systems USGS: United States Geologic Survey