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NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-05 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative CHAIR Research Programs CATHERINE NELSON CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Oregon DOT Research Programs NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer MEMBERS EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications KATHLEEN S. AMES Maker Baker Jr., Inc. SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STUART D. ANDERSON STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Texas A&M University Special Programs CYNTHIA J. BURBANK JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and PB Americas, Inc. Synthesis Studies BRIAN A. BLANCHARD JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer Florida DOT GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer LISA FREESE DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer Scott County (MN) Public Works Division TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant MALCOLM T. KERLEY DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor Virginia DOT CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant RICHARD D. LAND DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant California DOT DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate JOHN M. MASON, JR. Auburn University TOPIC PANEL ROGER C. OLSON Minnesota DOT ABBAS ABGHARI, California Department of Transportation THOMAS COOLING, URS Corporation, St. Louis, MO ROBERT L. SACK TIMOTHY E. HUFF, Tennessee Department of Transportation New York State DOT G.P. JAYAPRAKASH, Transportation Research Board FRANCINE SHAW-WHITSON STEVEN L. KRAMER, University of Washington Federal Highway Administration NICOLAS LUCO, US Geological Survey, Golden, CO LARRY VELASQUEZ ELMER MARX, Alaska DOT and Public Facilities, Juneau JAVEL Engineering, LLC. JAMES STRUTHERS, Washington State Department of Transportation FHWA LIAISONS JUSTICE J.G. MASWOSWE, Federal Highway Administration, JACK JERNIGAN Baltimore, Maryland (Liaison) MARY LYNN TISCHER PHILIP YEN, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) TRB LIAISON STEPHEN F. MAHER Cover figure: Damage to the Nimitz Freeway following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (courtesy of: Dr. Neven Matasovic). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank Mr. Byungmin Kim, graduate student at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, and Mr. Spencer Marcinek, Staff Engineer with Geosyntec Consultants, for their assis- tance during development drafts of this study. The authors would also like to thank Dr. Edward Kavazanjian, Jr., of Arizona State University and Dr. Sharid Amiri of Caltrans for their continuous support of this work and to Dr. Rodolfo Sancio of Geosyntec Consultants who peer- reviewed several drafts of this study.