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Contents 1SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 5 CHAPTER TWO CURRENT STATE OF EVALUATION OF SITE EFFECTS ON GROUND MOTIONS Introduction, 5 Site Response Evaluation Approaches, 5 Site Response Analysis Methods, 6 Information Required for Site Response Analysis, 6 Equivalent-Linear Site Response Analysis, 8 Nonlinear Total Stress Site Response Analysis, 10 Nonlinear Site Response Analysis with Pore Water Pressure Change, 13 Calibration and Benchmarking Studies, 15 Guidance Documents for Site Response Analysis, 15 Software Used in Practice, 15 17 CHAPTER THREE APPROACH TO SURVEY OF CURRENT PRACTICE Background, 17 Overview of the Survey, 17 Survey Respondents, 17 Survey Responses, 18 19 CHAPTER FOUR SURVEY RESPONSES AND RELEVANT LITERATURE General Practice, 19 Criteria and Programs Used in Site Response Analysis, 19 Dimensions, Analysis, and Model Type, 19 Seismic Hazard and Motion Input Required for Site Response Analysis, 20 Soil Profile Input Information Required for Site Response Analysis, 20 Site Response Analysis, 21 Evaluation and Use of Results, 22 General Comments on the Survey, 22 24 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Conclusions, 24 Suggestions for Further Research, 24 27REFERENCES 34BIBLIOGRAPHY 39GLOSSARY 40 APPENDIX A Survey Questionnaire 47 APPENDIX B Compiled Survey Responses

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77APPENDIX C Site Response Analysis Software--Software UrlS, References, and Use in Highway Engineering Practice as Identified by Survey Respondents Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at retains the color versions.