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23 Table 9 Staff Commitment to Social Media Activities by Size of Urbanized Area Large Urban Small Urban/Rural Job Category/Department No. Low High No. Low High Marketing and Communications 21 2.5 200 4 3 20 Senior Management 8 1.5 30 3 5 10 Information Technology 7 1 24 2 1 10 Customer Service 5 1 200 2 3 10 Administration 2 4 5 3 5 10 Planning 2 5 8 1 -- 20 Operations/Maintenance 2 5 20 2 1 8 Consultant 1 -- 5 1 -- 1 Community Relations 1 -- 170 0 -- -- Legal/Procurement 1 -- 5 0 -- -- Intern 1 -- 32 2 5 20 Human resources/Training 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Hours per month by size of operating setting and job category or department. High and low values reported; column marked "No." shows number of agencies responding. sales, sponsorships, and business listings. Projections for annual As the line between personal and professional lives contin- net revenues varied considerably, from a high of $1.9 million ues to blur, these questions are becoming increasingly relevant. to a potential loss of $70,000 (17 ). Other public agencies have Trend Micro found that 24% of U.S. workers accessed social explored these scenarios, including the state of New York, media sites while on the job in 2011, up from 20% in 2010 (19). which developed an advertising policy outlining the limited Federal workers are also using social media applications at circumstances under which state agencies may accept adver- work, and not necessarily for business reasons. A recent sur- tising. It also identified policy concerns including perceptions vey found that 46% of senior federal managers were allowed of official endorsement or favoritism, potential privacy vio- to access social media on the job in 2011, up from 20% in the lations when users click on an advertisement, and potential previous year. Among those using social media sites, 54% consequences if users are redirected to another website (18). used Facebook, including 20% who used it daily. For federal Neither document addresses the benefits or impacts of advertis- Facebook users, only 6% used the application exclusively for ing on social media platforms, but many of the findings apply. work purposes; 49% used it for personal use only and 45% for both work and personal use (20). Managing Employee Access Although some organizations ban personal use of social to Social Media media at the workplace, others allow some level of access. Managing employee access to social media at the workplace For example, Seattle-based King County Metro Transit's can be a challenge for many organizations. Some employers employees are subject to the county's social media policy, believe that social media tools can encourage staff commu- which addresses personal use as follows: nication and collaboration, but others are concerned about lost productivity, cybersecurity threats, and risks to reputation. Employees are allowed to have personal social networking sites. Employees should never use their county email account In its survey of government social media policies, CTG or password in conjunction with a personal social networking summarizes the dilemma: "Questions commonly arise with site. During normal business hours, employees may use personal social media use, such as how much time an employee may social networking for limited family or personal communications so long as those communications do not interfere with their work spend on a personal Facebook page while at work or how and as long as they adhere to existing computer use policies. much time an employee should devote to participating in Should employees discuss their county work on personal social peer-to-peer networking on sites such as GovLoop" (16). networking accounts or web sites, they should be aware their