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26 users participating in online discussion boards or signing up along with audio CAPTCHA (19%) and accessible Twitter for e-mail subscriptions are real people, and not automated (15%). Captioning alone does not make a website accessible, bots. For example, Moving LANTA Forward, the blog for and some organizations referred customers with disabilities the Lehigh and Northampton Transportation Authority, uses to the agency's main website, which fully conformed to CAPTCHA to screen comments on its blog posts. A typical accessibility requirements. One respondent from a large urban CAPTCHA application asks users to retype one or two words agency wrote, "As we provide all the pertinent information that are displayed as distorted text. Although humans can on our fully accessible website we do not feel that we are interpret the distortions, machines cannot. Assistive devices excluding a person with disabilities." such as screen readers are also stymied by the application, which block some visually impaired users from accessing certain features on social media sites. In a 2009 survey, screen Security reader users said that CAPTCHA was the most problematic item encountered online (32). Some websites provide an audio IT professionals and Internet security experts are increasingly version of CAPTCHA for visually impaired users; however, concerned that social media can increase an organization's researchers have found that it is difficult for individuals exposure to a range of threats to cybersecurity, from spam to use (34). to malware. About 57% of respondents in one survey of 502 companies said they received spam messages through Federal agencies are required to conform to Section 508 social networking, and 36% believe they received software accessibility guidelines for their own sites, but federal use of worms, viruses, or other forms of malware (38). In a white nonfederal websites is subject to interpretation. The General paper, ISACA outlined some of the major risks associated Services Administration included this guidance regarding fed- with corporate use of social media, including these security eral use of outside websites in its social media handbook (35): concerns (22): Agencies employing non-federal Web 2.0 services are required to · Introduction of viruses and malware ensure that persons with disabilities have equal access to those · Use of personal accounts to communicate work-related services as defined in the Accessibility Standards. The agency must evaluate the accessibility of the non-federal site and consider information the accessibility of all available alternatives. If dissemination of · Employee posting of pictures or information that link information in an accessible manner constitutes an undue burden them to the enterprise on the agency, a non-accessible non-federal site may still be used, · Excessive employee use of social media in the workplace but the agency must make the information available in alternative formats for individuals with disabilities. · Employee access to social media through employer- supplied mobile devices. Some argue that federal Section 508 accessibility rules Social networking sites are perceived as particularly vul- do not apply to government use of social media sites such as nerable to threats for two reasons. First, they are designed Twitter and Facebook, because the sites are privately owned to encourage users to share details of their personal and/or and operated. Advocates say this violates the spirit of the professional lives, and individuals sometimes offer too much law (36). information. Second, users have a tendency to trust social media sites and are quick to click on links, pictures, videos, and State and local organizations do not typically address executables when they come from "friends" (39). Echoing accessibility in their social media policies, and CTG did not this concern, one IT security expert told the San Francisco include the issue in its list of eight basic elements of gov- Chronicle, "Social media provides criminals with an oppor- ernment social media policies (17 ). Among public agencies tunity. When I get a message on Facebook from my wife and that do address the issue, Orange County, California, does I see a link, I'm going to click it" (40). ISACA further points not require its social media sites to comply with Section 508 out that the risks of social media use extend to employees requirements; instead, the county requires noncompliant sites who access social media sites from mobile devices or home to contain links to identical material on a compliant website computers (22). or social media network (37 ). Experts do not offer easy solutions, especially given the Only 21% of agencies responding to the survey reported ubiquity of social networking in the business world and that their social media websites were completely accessible increasingly the public sector. NASCIO reports that best for users with disabilities. Another 12% said their sites practices include extending existing security, privacy, and were partly accessible, and 36% did not know. Note that records management firewalls to the social media environment the survey did not define accessibility, and the standards and "knowing that education and end-user awareness are big agencies used to determine accessibility are not known. pieces of the puzzle" (4). Agencies reporting fully or partially accessible social media platforms used several accessibility features. These included Despite the widespread concerns expressed in the litera- captions for photos (78% of respondents) and videos (44%), ture about cybersecurity, only one agency responding to the