Click for next page ( 27

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 26
27 survey reported encountering a problem, a virus allegedly The National Archives and Records Administration contracted through Facebook. The vast majority of agencies (NARA) has issued guidance to help federal agencies make (88% of respondents) did not encounter any cybersecurity decisions on electronic record-keeping and responding to issues related to their use of social media or did not know requests under the Freedom of Information Act. However, whether their agency had been exposed to threats (9%). As according to Wilshusen's testimony, the challenges come in observed earlier in this chapter, respondents showed more translating NARA guidance into practical actions (42). Poten- concern about exposure to criticism (average = 2.7) than tial barriers include determining what records to keep, how exposure to computer viruses (average = 1.7). often to harvest them, and how to treat information from non- government sources (such as public comments on an agency blog). Another roadblock for agencies is the lack of options Records Retention for creating archives from social media postings. This issue has not yet been resolved legally, but many gov- Given these challenges and uncertainties, some agencies ernment IT professionals believe it is only a matter of time have taken a wait-and-see attitude until more detailed guide- before social media posts become subject to the same record- lines become available (43). Others have developed their keeping and disclosure rules that apply to e-mail and paper own records-retention requirements. For example, the city records. For now, the guidance varies from state to state and of Seattle incorporates guidance on records retention into its from agency to agency. broader social media policy (44): Among agencies surveyed for this synthesis, one in four Washington state law and relevant City of Seattle records retention (25% of agencies responding) was required to archive social schedules apply to social media formats and social media content. media posts. Just over half (56%) were not required to do so, Unless otherwise addressed in a specific social media standards document, the Department maintaining a site shall preserve records and 19% were not certain. When agencies kept records, their required to be maintained pursuant to a relevant records retention archiving strategies included printing files, saving screenshots schedule for the required retention period on a City server in a as PDF files, copying and pasting text into word processing format that preserves the integrity of the original record and is documents, or backing up images on the agency server. A few easily accessible. agencies use third-party applications that allow users to save Twitter posts in spreadsheet or text format, whereas others Seattle's specific standards require staff to archive Twitter leave the files in original format (e.g., blog administrative posts on servers maintained by the city and to print and files or Foursquare archives). maintain Facebook content that cannot be retrieved through Facebook. The state of North Carolina takes a similar position. In a white paper, the American Council for Technology That state's social media policy defines all communication Industry Advisory Council (41) identified five challenges to through agency-related social media as a part of the public social media records retention: record subject to the state's archiving requirements (45). Declaration: What is a social media record? Privacy Social media capture: Much of the social media content is in the public domain and, therefore, not under control of Government use of social media has raised concerns about the agency causing difficulty in capturing content. protecting user privacy. Although public agencies generally Social media metadata: Applying metadata to tag have privacy policies that address collection and use of per- social media content for retrieval is difficult. sonal information on their own websites, social media sites Social media scheduling/disposition: The lack of on third-party platforms are typically governed by the privacy control of the content makes scheduling and disposition policy of the application. of records difficult. Staffing and education: Education is needed to imple- In 2009, DHS held a workshop to explore the legal issues ment a successful social media records policy. associated with government use of social media (46). In their discussion of privacy issues, workshop panelists said that Gregory C. Wilshusen, director of information security citizens expect their online transactions with government to issues for the U.S. Government Accountability Office, testified represent a one-way mirror: on this matter before the House Subcommittee on Information Policy, Census, and National Archives in July 2010 (42). People value the transparency into government activities that social media can provide and want to be able to see what the He reported that federal agencies had two general concerns government is doing. At the same time, however, people do not about social media: want or expect that government will peer into their personal lives. Privacy and security, and In other words, citizens expect transparency in government- Records management and Freedom of Information to-citizen transactions and privacy in citizen-to-government challenges. interactions.