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Scaling Up: A Research Agenda Fc~/~" ~'neer~n" Computer Science and Technology Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1989

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Aeademy of Scienees, the National Aeademy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special eompetences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed lay a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Aeademy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Aeademy of Scienees is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Aeademy of Scienees. Ike National Aeademy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Seienees, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Aeademy of Scienees the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineenng also sponsom engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of _ . . ng~neenng. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Aeademy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Seienoes in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Aeademy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the following organizations and agencies: Control Data Corporation, Cray Research, Inc., the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Grant No. N00014-87- J-1110), Digital Equipment Corporation, the Department of Energy (Contract No. DE-FG05-87ER25029), Hewlett Packard, IBM Corporation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Grant No. CDA- 860535), the National Science Foundation (Grant No. CDA-860535), and the Office of-Naval Research (Grant No. N00014-87-J-1110~. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 89-63272 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04131-7 Available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 S039 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, October 1989 Second Pnnting, June 1990

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COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD JOSEPH F. TRAUB, Columbia University, Chairman JOHN SEELY BROWN, Xerox Corporation MICHAEL L. DERTOUZOS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SAMUEL H. FULLER, Digital Equipment Corporation JAMES FIREMAN GILBERT, University of California at San Diego WILLIAM ~ GODDARD III, California Institute of Technology JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University ROBERT E. KAHN, Corporation for National Research Initiatives SIDNEY KARIN, General Atomics LEONARD KLEINROCK, University of California at Los Angeles DAVID J. KUCK, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ROBERT LANGRIDGE, University of California at San Francisco ROBERT W. LUCKY, AT&T Bell Laboratories RAJ RED DY, Carnegie Mellon University MARY SHAW, Carnegie Mellon University WILLIAM J. SPENCER, Xerox Corporation IVAN E. SUTHERLAND, Sutherland, Sproull & Associates VICI OR VYSSOTSKY, Digital Equipment Corporation SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center IRVING WLADAWSKY-BERGER, IBM Corporation MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Staff Director DAMIAN M. SACCOCIO, Staff Officer MARGARET ~ KNEMEYER, Staff Associate C. K GUNSALUS, Staff Consultant DONNA F. ALLEN, Administrative Secretary CATHERINE ~ SPARKS, Secretary 111

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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES NORMAN HACKERMAN, Robert ~ Welch Foundation, Chairman ROBERT C. BEARDSLEY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution B. CLARK BURCHFIEL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GEORGE F. CARRIER, Harvard University RALPH J. CICERONE, National Center for Atmospheric Research HERBERT D. DOAN, The Dow Chemical Company (retired) PETER S. EAGLESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DEAN E. EASTMAN, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center MARYE ANNE FOX, University of Texas GERHART FRIEDLANDER, Brookhaven National Laboratory LAWRENCE W. FUNKHOUSER, Chevron Corporation (retired) PHILLIP A. GRIFFITHS, Duke University NEAL F. LANE, Rice University CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, University of California at Berkeley RICHARD S. NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science JACK E. OLIVER, Cornell University JEREMIAH P. OSTRIKER, Princeton University Observatory PHILIP ~ PALMER, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company FRANK L. PARKER, Vanderbilt University DENIS J. PRAGER, MacArthur Foundation DAVID M. RAUP, University of Colorado ROY F. SCHWI'l'l'~RS, Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory LARRY L. SMARR, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign KARL K TUREKIAN, Yale University MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director ROBERT M. SIMON, Acting Associate Executive Director 1V

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Preface How to produce software of sufficient quality and in sufficient quantity to meet national needs is a problem that has been festering for some time and is getting worse. Of particular concern is the need to facilitate the development of software for large and complex systems, on which the world is becoming critically dependent. This problem has concerned the National Research Council's Computer Science and Technology Board (CSTB) since its inception in 1986. On February 13-15, 1989, in Austin, Texas, the CSTB sponsored a two-and-one- half-day workshop on complex software systems research needs. A diverse group of software engineers, representing a range of industry perspectives and the academic community, participated (Appendix A). The workshop was chaired by Victor Vyssotsky of Digital Equipment Corporation, and the steering committee included Laszlo Belady of Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC), Mary Shaw of Carnegie Mellon University, and Shmuel Winograd of IBM Corporation's T. J. Watson Research Center. The CSTB workshop took as a starting point the notion that large and growing opportunity costs are resulting from the inability to produce sophisticated, reliable soft- ware in a timely manner. Its objective was to identify directions for software engineering research and potential mechanisms to improve the way software engineering research builds from and contributes to practice in the field. Consequently, workshop discussions focused on characterizing impediments perceived by software engineers, promising re- search directions, and options for improving the interplay between software engineering research and practice. This report summarizes the deliberations of workshop participants, focusing on directions for research. Included in Appendix B are brief position statements contributed by individual participants. The report is aimed at leaders in the academic and corporate research community who should be concerned about large-system software engineering. It is also directed to government funders of software engineering research, who control key levers of change. Joseph F. Itaub, Chairman Computer Science and Technology Board v

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY. . 2 PERSPECTIVE 3 ENGINEERING PRACTICE . 4 RESEARCH MODES ......... 5 CONCLUSIONS. BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIXES A WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS B POSITION STATEMENTS ..... - . . V11 7 ........ 15 ..19 .23 ....25 ........ 31 32 . . . . . .

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