in the past. Development of an institutional framework that catalyzes sustainable growth patterns through strategic targeted investments becomes even more important under such economic circumstances. Information management, information technologies, and communication will be key in facilitating the complex but efficient research and the design, construction, operation, and management of underground infrastructure.

Observation: Market forces in the United States encourage workforce capacity growth and urban and infrastructure development, but often in an ad hoc manner that may not be consistent with urban sustainability.

Conclusion 2. Development of underground space as part of sustainable urbanization requires expanded and coordinated communication with stakeholders to better incorporate site-specific conditions, greater flexibility, and long-term community needs into infrastructure system design and optimal lifecycle management.

Potential actions:

a. Establish a federally led interdisciplinary network or organization of organizations and institutions to guide sustainable patterns in underground infrastructure development and encourage interdisciplinary research and communication of findings among all disciplines and stakeholders. Stakeholders include, for example, designers, long-term planners, architects, safety specialists, and an array of engineering, geologic, geophysical, environmental, and contracting specialists from industry, government, and academia.

b. Develop mechanisms for integrated and holistic three-dimensional research and planning that include information management and communication technologies to facilitate complex research, design, construction, operation, and management of underground infrastructure.

Research:

a. Explore models for designing sustainability into engineered systems of urban systems that recognize interdependencies, vulnerabilities, complexity, and adaptability. Coordinate ongoing research in the United States and elsewhere on, for example, complex adaptive systems and human factors engineering (e.g., incorporating behavioral science, human performance and capacity, personnel and training, and human biology and physiology into engineered systems).

b. Develop conceptual models of the complex interactions among multiple systems (e.g., mechanical, human, and environmental) to improve understanding, reduce risk, and effectively manage infrastructure amid changing technologies, societal conditions, and expectations.



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