environment through underground use. Specialized site and facility planning specialists consider the interrelationship between the surface and underground in detail. Architects, architectural engineers, and underground civil engineering specialists develop and illustrate workable design solutions for specific underground spaces that reflect geologic and groundwater conditions and any hazards present at and near the site of the proposed facility. Geotechnical engineers provide site definition investigations and studies that establish the basis for these designs (see below). To appreciate what the finished facility may look like and how well it will serve the intended purposes, interior designers will consider how to transform the underground space by planning surfaces, lighting, colors, finishes, textures, signs, and subliminal indicators that contribute to a sense of comfort and safety in the underground and its public access points.

Cost Estimating, Schedule Management, and Interface Management

A component of project “success” is completion within cost budgets and time schedules. Cost and schedule management specialists develop workable schedules and correlated cost estimates for the underground work that reflect reported site conditions and constraints, equipment selection to perform the work, and any mitigations designated by the various government offices with jurisdiction. As the project advances to construction, the leads on the interdisciplinary team, define major discrete work elements and implement control systems that assist in the management of project scope, costs, and schedules beginning with a project work breakdown structure (WBS). They coordinate cost estimates, time schedules, and data that form baseline working budgets for each task and work package. A critical path schedule is developed to aid work management. The assembled information becomes a regularly updated project control system that reflects progress and identifies occurrences of indications of problems or delays as early as possible. Underground project cost estimating specialists conduct risk and contingency analyses, analyze processes and scheduling, and recommend the most cost effective equipment for specific jobs. They rely on the work of underground systems engineering specialists who develop a project risk register1 used in project planning, risk assessment, and risk mitigation.

Systems engineering specialists, besides developing risk registers, employ interface management techniques that integrate project management areas and technical disciplines. As a project develops, construction contract packages are defined for different parts of the project, and interfaces between the separate


1 A risk register is a tool created shortly after a project concept is defined, and is used to manage risk in underground construction and operation throughout project development. It helps to identify risks and their impacts, from which mitigating and contingency actions can be determined. Many risks listed in the register (e.g., discipline-specific uncertainties such as the availability of specific electronic devices) are reduced as work progresses and mitigation activities are performed.

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