regulatory, educational, and research environments to allow those contributions to be made.

This report is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 2 traces the evolution of urban underground space use and the drivers affecting proper development. In Chapter 3, the committee discusses the role of underground engineering in sustainability and some of the challenges of sustainable underground development. Chapter 4 examines human-technical system relationships and the hazards related to human use of underground space. The assessment of costs and benefits of underground infrastructure and lifecycle sustainability are addressed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 explores the technologies that make underground engineering possible and discusses the types of innovations that could increase the contributions of underground engineering to sustainable development. Finally, the committee presents its overarching conclusions in Chapter 7 in the context of a framework to improve institutional, educational, research, and workforce capacities for underground engineering for sustainability.

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