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This study was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-0946245. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the U.S. government.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-27824-9

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-27824-4
ISBN: 0-309-27827-9

Library of Congress Control Number: 2013932381

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Cover: Cover design by Michele de la Menardiere. Top left is a screw conveyor (used to remove material excavated from a tunnel) of the world’s largest tunnel boring machine being constructed for tunnelling beneath downtown Seattle. Top right is the inside of an underground utilidor in Amsterdam; courtesy of H. Admiraal. Middle left is a laser scanned image of a building foundation under construction; courtesy of Y. Hashash. Bottom is a train departing from a Washington, D.C. underground Metro station.

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