C


Biographies of Committee
Members and Staff

Jerry A. Krill is assistant director for science and technology and chief technology officer at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), leading APL’s innovation initiative and establishing a new Research and Exploratory Development Department. Previously he served as the JHU/APL assistant director for programs and chief quality officer. In that position Dr. Krill was responsible for all of APL’s more than 700 programs, implemented an ISO-based quality management system, and co-chaired milestone and program management reviews for APL’s NASA science missions and instruments. Earlier positions at JHU/APL included executive for air defense programs and head of the Power Projection Systems Department with its precision engagement and info-centric operations program portfolios. He holds a doctorate in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland. Dr. Krill’s expertise includes combat systems, systems engineering, sensor and weapons networks, and microwave technology. He was a principal in developing the U.S. Navy’s Cooperative Engagement Capability, which networks air defense systems, and, in 2000, led a joint Navy/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) working group to develop technical concepts for the Navy’s role in national and regional missile defense. He holds 18 patents, and his awards include Innovator of the Year by the Baltimore Daily Record and the American Society of Naval Engineers “Jimmie” Hamilton Award. A former member of the Naval Studies Board (NSB), he has served on NRC and Defense Science Board (DSB) studies. Other memberships include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA), National Space Society (NSS), and the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE).



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C Biographies of Committee Members and Staff Jerry A. Krill is assistant director for science and technology and chief technol- ogy officer at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), leading APL’s innovation initiative and establishing a new Research and Exploratory Development Department. Previously he served as the JHU/APL assistant director for programs and chief quality officer. In that position Dr. Krill was responsible for all of APL’s more than 700 programs, implemented an ISO-based quality management system, and co-chaired milestone and program management reviews for APL’s NASA science missions and instruments. Earlier positions at JHU/APL included executive for air defense programs and head of the Power Projection Systems Department with its precision engagement and info-centric operations program portfolios. He holds a doctorate in electrical en- gineering from the University of Maryland. Dr. Krill’s expertise includes combat systems, systems engineering, sensor and weapons networks, and microwave technology. He was a principal in developing the U.S. Navy’s Cooperative En- gagement Capability, which networks air defense systems, and, in 2000, led a joint Navy/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) working group to develop technical concepts for the Navy’s role in national and regional missile defense. He holds 18 patents, and his awards include Innovator of the Year by the Baltimore Daily Record and the American Society of Naval Engineers “Jimmie” Hamilton Award. A former member of the Naval Studies Board (NSB), he has served on NRC and Defense Science Board (DSB) studies. Other memberships include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA), National Space Society (NSS), and the International Coun- cil on Systems Engineering (INCOSE). 161

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162 APPENDIX C J. Paul Reason, ADM, USN (Retired), is currently an independent consultant, having retired from the U.S. Navy with the rank of admiral after 35 years of ser- vice. His background includes naval and joint operations, as well as Department of Defense planning, programming, and budgeting. In his last position, he served as Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, where his responsibilities included the training, maintenance, and readiness of naval forces deployed to the Mediter- ranean and Caribbean seas, South America, and the Persian Gulf. He was also responsible for the operations of most U.S. Navy bases and facilities along the East and Gulf coasts of the United States, in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Iceland. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a member of the NRC Committee on the “1,000-ship Navy”—A Distributed and Global Maritime Network and the Committee on U.S. Forces’ Capabilities for Responding to Small Vessel Threats; he is a member of the Naval Studies Board. Ann N. Campbell is currently director for information solutions and services at Sandia National Laboratories. Her organization develops and stewards Sandia’s enterprise applications and information environment, develops custom software applications to support national security missions, and performs cybersecurity research. Dr. Campbell was previously senior manager and deputy for cyber research in Sandia’s Chief Technology Office, with responsibility for develop- ment and implementation of an institutional strategy for cyberresearch. She has also served as acting director for Sandia’s Cyber Security Strategic Thrust and as senior manager deputy for technical programs for the laboratory’s Defense Systems and Assessments strategic management unit. As senior manager for as- sessment technologies in the Information Systems and Analysis Center at Sandia, Dr. Campbell led the development and management of a portfolio of programs focused on vulnerability assessments and development of national security solu- tions for multiple government sponsors. She has served on several National Re- search Council committees focused on technology surprise, including TIGER and the Committee on Science and Technology for Defense Warning. Dr. Campbell holds a B.S. in materials engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and an S.M. and a Ph.D. in applied physics from Harvard University. Timothy P. Coffey is an independent consultant having recently retired as the Edison Chair at the Center for Technology and National Security Policy at the National Defense University. He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1962 with a B.S. in electrical engineering and obtained an M.S. (1963) and a Ph.D. (1967), both in physics, from the University of Michi- gan. Dr. Coffey joined the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in 1971 as head of the plasma dynamics branch, Plasma Physics Division. In this position, he directed research in the simulation of plasma instabilities, the development of multidimensional fluid and magnetohydrodynamic codes, and the development of computer codes for treating chemically reactive flows. In 1975, Dr. Coffey

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APPENDIX C 163 was named superintendent, Plasma Physics Division; he was appointed associate director of research for general science and technology in 1980. Two years later, Dr. Coffey was named director of research at NRL. Today, he serves on numer- ous scientific boards and advisory committees such as the recently completed NRC Committee on Operational Science and Technology Options for Defeating Improvised Explosive Devices; he is a member of the NSB. Stirling A. Colgate (NAS) is a physicist at the Los Alamos National Labora- tory and a professor emeritus of physics at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (New Mexico Tech), where he still continues an experiment on the origin of the magnetic fields of the universe. During the Second World War he served in various positions in the U.S. Merchant Marine. After the war, Dr. Colgate returned to Cornell University, completing his B.S. and a Ph.D. in nuclear physics, then taking up a position as a postdoctoral fellow at Berkeley. In 1952, he moved to Livermore National Laboratory, where he performed the diagnostic measurements for the nuclear tests of the hydrogen bomb just devel- oped at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He was responsible for the design and execution of the fast nuclear diagnostics (gamma rays, neutrons, and x-rays) of the Bravo test, 15 megaton equivalent yield, including a dozen vacuum pipelines 2 miles long. Later, he served as the scientific advisor to the State Department during the test ban negotiations in Geneva, where he proposed the mutual need for the detection of nuclear testing in space by use of spy satellites. The surpris- ing Soviet acceptance of this concept predated perestroika. Dr. Colgate went on to serve as president of New Mexico Tech from 1965 to 1974, where he also conducted research in astrophysics and atmospheric physics. He became an adjunct professor at New Mexico Tech, moving to Los Alamos National Labora- tory, where he currently continues work in astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. Dr. Colgate is a fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); he is a member of the American Astronomical Society (AMS) and the American Meteorological Society among others; and he was a founding board member of the Santa Fe Institute. Charles R. Cushing (NAE) is president of C.R. Cushing & Co., Inc., a firm of naval architects, marine engineers, and transportation consultants with offices in New York and Europe. He has been responsible for the design and/or construc- tion of over 250 ocean-going vessels in the United States, Europe, and the Far East. Specifically, he has directed the concept, preliminary, and contract design; strategic planning; plan approval; and supervision of construction of vessels from tankers and container ships to bulk carriers and passenger ships. His work has included new construction, conversion, repair, and refurbishment of vessels. Dr. Cushing has been directly responsible for risk analyses, safety audits, energy audits, and the preparation of the U.S. Coast Guard’s Tankerman’s Manual. He

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164 APPENDIX C has designed intermodal shipping containers and a myriad of container handling equipment, and he holds a number of patents in maritime and intermodal tech- nology. For 26 years he has taught a course on ship acquisition and for 7 years a course on maritime casualty investigation, both at the United Nations World Maritime University. For 12 years he has served on the final selection commit- tee of the National Shipbuilding Research Program, which sponsors and funds naval and commercial shipbuilding research in the United States. Dr. Cushing has served on scientific boards and advisory committees, and he is currently a member of the NRC’s Marine Board as well as a member of the NSB. Susan Hackwood is currently executive director of the California Council on Science and Technology (CCST) and professor of electrical engineering at the University of California, Riverside, where her research interests include electrical engineering, signal processing, and cellular robotic systems, to name just a few. CCST is a not-for-profit corporation comprised of 150 top science and technology leaders sponsored by the key academic and federal research institutions in Cali- fornia, and it advises the state on all aspects of science and technology including nanotechnology, stem cell research, intellectual property, climate change, energy, information technology, biotechnology, and technical workforce development and education. Dr. Hackwood has worked extensively with industry, academic, and government partnerships to identify policy issues of importance and is active in regional and state economic development. Dr. Hackwood is a fellow of the IEEE and the AAAS. Dr. Hackwood received a Ph.D. in solid state ionics from DeMontfort University. She has served on other scientific boards and advisory committees including membership of the NRC Committee on Improving the Decision Making Abilities of Small Unit Leaders; she is a member of the NSB. Lee M. Hammarstrom is special assistant to the director at the Applied Research Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University. Previously, he was the first chief scientist at the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) and chief scientist at the Office of the Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence. Mr. Hammarstrom has broad expertise in areas ranging from technology development to the testing and deploying of military and intelligence systems. He has served on numerous scientific and advisory committees and he is an NRO Pioneer and senior fellow. Nathaniel S. Heiner is a Northrop Grumman technical fellow as well as director and principal architect, C4I integration, for Northrop Grumman Corporation’s Technology and Engineering Group. He previously worked as the U.S. Coast Guard’s senior civilian officer for technology, often acting as the Coast Guard chief information officer. In his prior tour with Northrop Grumman and the Federal Data Corporation in the 1990s, he was director of Web/Internet security services, focusing on emerging threats to Internet-based systems. He spent his

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APPENDIX C 165 early career as a UNIX networking expert, writing networked database applica- tions and peripheral drivers and securing communications systems law firms, Congress, AT&T, and MCI. Specializing in mathematical logic and linguistics, Dr. Heiner earned Ph.D., M.Phil., M.A., and B.A. degrees at Columbia Univer- sity, where he also taught. Leon A. Johnson, Brig Gen, USAFR (Retired), is currently an independent consultant having retired from the U.S. Air Force with the rank of brigadier gen- eral after 33 years of service. During his career, General Johnson commanded a fighter squadron, fighter group, was the vice commander of 10th Air Force at the Joint Reserve Base in Ft. Worth, Texas, and served as mobilization assistant to the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force and as director of operations at the Air Education and Training Command. Following the events of 9/11, he served as a director of the Air Force Crisis Action Team in the Pentagon. General Johnson is a member of several organizations, including the Air Force Association, the Military Officers Association of America, Military Order of World Wars, Veterans of Foreign Wars, Reserve Officers Association, League of United Latin American Citizens, Women in Aviation, the International Black Aerospace Council, Inc., and Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. General Johnson was elected to a 2-year term as the Tuskegee Airmen, Inc., national president in July 2010. He recently retired from United Parcel Service (UPS) after nearly 20 years of service, where he served as the flight operations employment manager and concluded his career working on a special project as the manager of airline manuals. In 2011, General Johnson was awarded a doctorate in humane letters by Tuskegee University. In November 2011, he received an appointment by the Secretary of the Air Force to the Civil Air Patrol Board of Governors, the senior policy-making body for that body as established by Public Law. He is a trustee of the U.S. Air Force Falcon Founda- tion and is a member of the NSB. Catherine M. Kelleher is professor for public policy at the University of Mary- land and senior faculty associate at Brown University’s Watson Institute, where her research interests include cooperative European defense and security policies, North Atlantic Treaty Organization relations, and international security and arms control. Dr. Kelleher served in the Clinton administration as personal representa- tive of the Secretary of Defense in Europe and as deputy assistant secretary of defense for Russia, Ukraine, and Eurasia. She has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a member of the NRC Commit- tee on National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces and the NRC Committee on the “1,000-Ship Navy”—A Distributed and Global Maritime Network. She is a former member of the NSB. Jeffrey E. Kline is a professor of practice in the Operations Research Department and program director, Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Educa-

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166 APPENDIX C tion and Research (CRUSER), at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPGS). He oversees over 25 interagency and interschool research and educational initiatives related to maritime security, maritime domain awareness, port security, coun- terpiracy operations, and maritime critical infrastructure, with sponsors ranging from the Secretary of the Navy, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Department of Energy, Secretary of the Navy, and the U.S. Coast Guard. He retired as a captain from the U.S. Navy and has over 26 years of extensive naval operational experience, including commanding two U.S. Navy ships and serving as deputy of operations for the Commander, Sixth Fleet, where he participated in theaterwide operational planning. In addition to his sea service, Mr. Kline spent 3 years as a naval analyst in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. He is a 1992 graduate of the NPGS’s Operations Research Program, where he earned the Chief of Naval Operations Award for Excellence in Operations Research, and is a 1997 distin- guished graduate of the National War College, where he earned the Chairman of the Joint Chief’s Strategic Writing Award. Mr. Kline’s NPGS faculty awards include the 2011 Institute for Operations Research and Management Science Award for Teaching of Practice, the 2007 Hamming Award for interdisciplinary research, the 2007 Wayne E. Meyers Award for Excellence in Systems Engineer- ing Research, and the 2005 Northrop Grumman Award for Excellence in Systems Engineering. Annette J. Krygiel is currently an independent consultant with expertise in the management of large-scale systems, particularly in regard to software develop- ment and systems integration. She served as a distinguished visiting fellow at the Institute for National Strategic Studies at the National Defense University (NDU), where she wrote a book on large-scale system integration. Prior to that, she was director of the Central Imagery Office (CIO), a Department of Defense combat support agency, until CIO joined the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in October 1996. Dr. Krygiel began her career at the Defense Mapping Agency, where she held various positions, including chief scientist. Dr. Krygiel previously served as chair of the NRC Committee on the Role of Experimentation in Build- ing Future Naval Forces and recently served as a member of the NRC Committee on U.S. Naval Forces’ Capabilities for Responding to Small Vessel Threats. Thomas V. McNamara is currently director, strategy and business creation at Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems. He served previously as senior vice president and chief technology officer for Textron Systems, where he focused on long-term strategic technical investments and program execution to support Tex- tron Systems’ businesses. He was responsible for the development of technology and systems to address the emerging challenges in the areas of precision engage- ment, maritime and land platforms, advanced controls, and aircraft engines. His areas of expertise include guidance, navigation and control; intelligent autonomy; precision weapons delivery; micro-electromechanical sensors; dismounted sol-

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APPENDIX C 167 dier systems; mission planning; and systems integration for naval submersible and aircraft platforms. He recently served as a member of the NRC Committee on the “1,000-Ship Navy”—A Distributed and Global Maritime Network, the Committee on Distributed Remote Sensing for Naval Undersea Warfare, and as co-chair of the Committee on U.S. Naval Forces’ Capabilities for Responding to Small Vessel Threats. Richard W. Mies, ADM, USN (Retired), is the CEO and president of the Mies Group, Ltd. He provides strategic planning and risk assessment advice and assis- tance to clients on international security, energy, defense, and maritime issues. A distinguished graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy, he completed a 35-year career as a nuclear submariner in the U.S. Navy and commanded the U.S. Strategic Command for 4 years prior to retirement in 2002. Admiral Mies served as a senior vice president and deputy group president of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and as the president and chief executive officer of Hicks and Associates, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of SAIC from 2002 to 2007. He also served as the chairman of the Department of Defense Threat Reduction Advisory Committee from 2004 to 2010 and as the chairman of the board of the Navy Mutual Aid Association from 2003 to 2011. He presently serves as chairman of the Strategic Advisory Group of the U.S. Strategic Command and chairman of the board of the Naval Submarine League; more recently, he became a trustee of the U.S. Naval Academy Foundation. He is a member of the Committee on International Security and Arms Control of the NAS, a member of the boards of governors of Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and a member of the board of directors of Mutual of Omaha Com- pany, Babcock and Wilcox Company, and Exelon Corporation. He also serves on numerous advisory boards. Admiral Mies completed postgraduate education at Oxford University, England, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, and Harvard University. He holds a master’s degree in government administration and international relations. C. Kumar N. Patel (NAS/NAE) is the founder, president, and CEO of Prana- lytica, Inc., a Santa Monica-based company that is the leader in quantum cascade laser technology for defense and homeland security applications. He is also professor of physics and astronomy, electrical engineering, and chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He served as vice chancellor for research at UCLA from 1993 to 1999. Prior to joining UCLA, he was the execu- tive director of the Research, Materials Science, Engineering and Academic Af- fairs Division at AT&T Bell Laboratories, where he began his career by carrying out research in gas lasers. He is the inventor of the carbon dioxide laser and many other molecular gas lasers that ushered in the era of high-power sources of coher- ent optical radiation. Dr. Patel was awarded the National Medal of Science for his invention of the carbon dioxide laser. His other awards include the Ballantine

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168 APPENDIX C Medal of the Franklin Institute, the Zworykin Award of the National Academy of Engineering, the Lamme Medal of the IEEE, the Texas Instruments Foundation Founders Prize, and many more. Dr. Patel holds a B.E. in telecommunications from the College of Engineering in Poona, India, and received his M.S. and Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University. Heidi C. Perry is director, algorithms and software, at the Charles S. Draper Laboratory, Inc. Previously she was director, internal research and develop- ment, at the Draper Laboratory. Her expertise includes guidance, navigation, and control; global position system antijam and ground control; precisions weapons delivery command and control; autonomous systems; mission-critical software; and C4ISR systems. She served as a member of the NRC Committee on National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces and on the NRC Committee on the “1,000-Ship Navy”—A Distributed and Global Maritime Net- work. She is a member of the NSB. Gene H. Porter is an adjunct staff member at the Institute for Defense Analyses. His areas of expertise include national security planning and weapons systems development and defining the defense planning scenarios that are intended to guide the development of the U.S. military force structure. Mr. Porter formerly served as the director of acquisition policy and program integration at the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as chair of NRC Committee for Mine Warfare Assessment and more recently as a member of the NRC Com- mittee on U.S. Naval Forces’ Capabilities for Responding to Small Vessel Threats. Dana R. Potts is the senior Navy experienced systems engineer principal for the Horizontal Integration Operational Concepts Team at Lockheed Martin Aeronau- tics Advanced Development Programs (Skunk Works), having retired from the U.S. Navy with the rank of captain. He is responsible for projects that include any maritime component. He was scenario lead for two corporate-level Marine Air Ground Task Force Experiments, creating the scenarios and coordinating the efforts involving aeronautics, electronic systems, enterprise operations, informa- tion systems and global solutions, mission systems, and space systems. He also led the man-in-the-loop experiment studying the attributes of the Skunk Works concept for the Unmanned Carrier Launched Airborne Surveillance and Strike system. He has received two Lockheed Martin Nova awards for projects involving teamwork with these scenarios. Prior to joining Lockheed, Mr. Potts completed over 28 years with the U.S. Navy and held leadership positions both ashore and at sea, primarily in tactical aviation flying the F-4 Phantom and the F-14 Tomcat. His significant operational experience included command of Fighter Squadron ONE FIVE FOUR and command of Carrier Air Wing SEVENTEEN in combat operations. He was also a fellow with the CNO Strategic Studies Group XXIII

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APPENDIX C 169 that conducted research, developed innovative concepts, and made recommenda- tions to the Chief of Naval Operations concerning the “Navy After Next.” He earned a B.S. in computer science from Texas A&M and an M.S. in national security strategy from the NDU National War College. John E. Rhodes, LtGen, USMC (Retired), is currently an independent con- sultant having retired from the U.S. Marine Corps with the rank of lieutenant general after 36 years of service. His background is in development of warfight- ing concepts and in the integration of all aspects of doctrine, organization, train- ing and education, equipment, and support and facilities to enable the Marine Corps to field combat-ready forces. In his last position, General Rhodes served as commanding general of the Marine Corps Combat Development Command, where his responsibilities included assessments of current and future operating environments and adaptation of the Corps’ training infrastructure and resources in order to ensure that integrated capabilities were delivered to the combatant commanders. General Rhodes has served on numerous scientific boards and ad- visory committees, including as a member of the NRC Committee on Manpower and Personnel Needs for a Transformed Naval Force and the Committee on U.S. Forces’ Capabilities for Responding to Small Vessel Threats; he is a member of the NSB. Robert M. Stein is currently an independent consultant, having served previ- ously as vice president of the Raytheon Company until he retired in 2000. He managed Raytheon’s Advanced Systems Office. He was responsible for the for- mulation and implementation of advanced systems and concepts for current and future Raytheon product lines. Mr. Stein led concept formulation and advanced development studies for the company and the U.S. government, addressing the advanced strategic and tactical defense needs for the United States and many of its allies. These have ranged from early concept studies on the protection of the continental United States (CONUS) and the defense of retaliatory forces against nuclear attack in the 1960s, to tactical defense of land and sea forces in the 1970s, to defense of CONUS, theater, and allied military and civilian assets against air, cruise, or ballistic missile attack in the 1980s and 1990s. He has participated in a number of Army Science Board, Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, and Navy Research Advisory Committee task forces. He has served on and/or cochaired many DSB task forces and summer studies and is currently a senior fellow on the board. He also currently serves as a member of the Missile Defense Agency Advisory Committee. Mr. Stein performed undergraduate work in electrical engi- neering at MIT and has performed extensive graduate studies at MIT and Boston University in mathematical physics. He holds a patent in multibeam radar antenna techniques, has published numerous articles on defense technology and related policy issues, and has taught a variety of courses on radar and information theory.

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170 APPENDIX C In 1992, Raytheon awarded Mr. Stein the Thomas L. Phillips Award of Excellence in Technology—the company’s highest recognition for technical achievement. Vincent Vitto is the retired president and CEO of Charles Stark Draper Labo- ratory, Inc., where he served for 9 years until 2006. Since 2006, he has been working as an independent consultant. Before joining Draper in 1997, he spent 32 years at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory, rising to assistant director of surface sur- veillance and communications. He holds an M.S. in physics from Northeastern University and a B.S. in physics from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. Currently, Mr. Vitto is chairman of the board of directors of Mercury Computer Systems, a member of the QinetiQ North America proxy board of Directors and a member of the board of trustees for the Aerospace Corporation. He is also a member of the National Associates of the National Academies and a fellow of the AIAA. He serves on the board of trustees at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. Mr. Vitto has received numerous public service awards in his career, including the Meritorious Public Service Award and the Superior Public Service Award from the Department of the Navy, the Decoration for Exceptional Civil- ian Services from the Department of the Air Force, and, in 2009, the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service Award. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the Intelligence Science Board, the DSB, NRO’s Technical Advisory Group, and the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency Advisory Group. He also chaired the NSB from 1999 to 2004. David A. Whelan (NAE) is vice president, Engineering, for Boeing Defense Space & and Security (BDS). Dr. Whelan has broad responsibility to create, seek out, and explore new technology and growth vectors for the Boeing Company. Boeing’s technology and systems span a wide range of government missions, from space and airborne systems to ground systems to undersea systems. He has in-depth knowledge of science, technology, systems, and future customer requirements, enabling Boeing to find new solutions to world’s most challenging problems. Dr. Whelan serves as a member of the Technical Advisory Committee for HRL Laboratories, the legacy R&D laboratory of the former Hughes Aircraft Company, a LLC jointly owned by Boeing and GM. Prior assignments include vice president for strategy and innovation and chief scientist, BDS; vice president, Boeing corporate business development and strategy; and vice president/general manager and deputy to the president of the Boeing Company. He began his career with Boeing as vice president and chief technology officer for the space and com- munications group. Dr. Whelan is a fellow of the American Physical Society and of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. He has numerous publications on electromagnetic radiation, laser plasma phenomena, and defense systems. He holds over 150 patents on navigation systems, radar systems, antenna, and low-

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APPENDIX C 171 observable technology. He is the recipient of the Secretary of Defense medals for Outstanding Public Service (1998) and Meritorious Civil Service (2001). Before joining Boeing, Dr. Whelan served as director of the Tactical Technology Office (SES-5) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). During his early career, he worked at Northrop where he was one of the key designers of the B-2 stealth bomber and contributed to the YF-23 advanced tactical fighter, at Hughes Aircraft Company, and at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Liver- more National Laboratory (LLNL). Peter G. Wilhelm (NAE) is director of the Naval Center for Space Technology (NCST) at the NRL. He is responsible for the technical and managerial leadership of NCST’s mission, which is to preserve and enhance a strong space technology base and provide expert assistance in the development and acquisition of space systems that support naval missions. During Mr. Wilhelm’s tenure, the space program at NRL has grown from a branch to a division of the center. Under his direction, NCST and the Navy have achieved numerous successes and firsts in space, including the GPS satellite and the highly successful Clementine Deep Space Mission, which demonstrated the capability of low-cost, high-value space exploration and has become the model for it. Mr. Wilhelm’s achievements include contributions to the design, development, and operation of 100 scientific and fleet-support satellites. Mr. Wilhelm is a fellow of the AIAA and of the Washing- ton Academy of Science. John D. Wilkinson is an assistant group leader at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, in the Air Defense Techniques Group of the Air and Missile Defense Technology Division. He has worked at Lincoln Laboratory since 1998, beginning in the Intelligence, Test, and Evaluation Group. After a decade of radar data analysis, radar system engineering, and radar testing experience, Mr. Wilkinson now serves as the Lincoln Program Manager for several science and technology programs related to air defense. In this role he proposed and led the development of an UHF radar installed on Lincoln’s Boeing 707 and helped design, build, and deploy two other radar systems as well. He was awarded a B.S. in physics from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and an M.S. in electrical engineering from Tufts University. Staff Charles F. Draper is director of the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board (NSB). He joined the NSB in 1997 as program officer then senior program officer and in 2003 became associate director and acting director of the NSB. During his tenure with the NSB, Dr. Draper has served as study director on a wide range of topics aimed at helping the Department of the Navy and DOD with their scientific, technical, and strategic planning. He served as study director for

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172 APPENDIX C the report Conventional Prompt Global Strike: Issues for 2008 and Beyond and the more recent Making Sense of Ballistic Missile Defense: An Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives. Before joining the NSB, Dr. Draper was the lead mechanical engineer at S.T. Research Corporation, where he provided technical and pro- gram management support for satellite Earth station and small satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic-force microscope to measure the nanomechani- cal properties of thin-film materials. In parallel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer with Geo-Centers, Inc., working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater X-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships. Douglas C. Friedman is a program officer with the Board on Chemical Sci- ences and Technology at the National Research Council of the National Acad- emy of Sciences. His primary scientific interests lie in the fields of organic and bio-organic materials and chemical and biological sensing and nanotechnology, particularly as they apply to national and homeland security. Dr. Friedman has supported a diverse array of activities since joining the NRC. He has directed studies in the areas of carbohydrate chemistry and glycobiology, crude oil pipe- line transportation, computational molecular dynamics simulations, and chemical and biological defense. Dr. Friedman has also supported activities in biomass utilization, critical resources, and antibiotics research and development. Prior to joining the NRC, Dr. Friedman performed research in physical organic chemistry and chemical biology at Northwestern University, the University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley, and Solulink Biosciences. He holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from Northwestern University and a bachelor’s degree in chemical biology from the University of California, Berkeley.