Appendix A

Committee Member and Staff Biographies

John D. Steinbruner (Chair) is professor of public policy at the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland and director of the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM). His work has focused on issues of international security and related problems of international policy. Steinbruner was director of the Foreign Policy Studies Program at the Brookings Institution from 1978 to 1996. Prior to joining Brookings, he was an associate professor in the School of Organization and Management and in the Department of Political Science at Yale University from 1976 to 1978. From 1973 to 1976 he served as associate professor of public policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, where he also was assistant director of the Program for Science and International Affairs. He was assistant professor of government at Harvard from 1969 to 1973 and assistant professor of political science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1968 to 1969. Steinbruner has authored and edited a number of books and monographs, including The Cybernetic Theory of Decision: New Dimensions of Political Analysis (Princeton University Press, 1974, 2002), Principles of Global Security (Brookings Institution Press, 2000), and A New Concept of Cooperative Security, co-authored with Ashton B. Carter and William J. Perry (Brookings Occasional Papers, 1992). His articles have appeared in Arms Control Today, The Brookings Review, Daedalus, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, International Security, Scientific American, Washington Quarterly, and other journals. Steinbruner is currently co-chair of the Committee on International Security Studies of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, chairman of the Board of the Arms Control Association, and



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Appendix A Committee Member and Staff Biographies John D. Steinbruner (Chair) is professor of public policy at the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland and director of the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM). His work has focused on issues of international security and related problems of international policy. Steinbruner was director of the Foreign Policy Studies Program at the Brookings Institution from 1978 to 1996. Prior to join- ing Brookings, he was an associate professor in the School of Organiza- tion and Management and in the Department of Political Science at Yale University from 1976 to 1978. From 1973 to 1976 he served as associate professor of public policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, where he also was assistant director of the Pro- gram for Science and International Affairs. He was assistant professor of government at Harvard from 1969 to 1973 and assistant professor of political science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1968 to 1969. Steinbruner has authored and edited a number of books and mono- graphs, including The Cybernetic Theory of Decision: New Dimensions of Political Analysis (Princeton University Press, 1974, 2002), Principles of Global Security (Brookings Institution Press, 2000), and A New Concept of ­Cooperative ­Security, co-authored with Ashton B. Carter and William J. Perry (­ rookings Occasional Papers, 1992). His articles have appeared in B Arms Control Today, The Brookings Review, Daedalus, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, International Security, Scientific American, Washington Quarterly, and other journals. Steinbruner is currently co-chair of the Com- mittee on International Security Studies of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, chairman of the Board of the Arms Control Association, and 179

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180 CLIMATE AND SOCIAL STRESS board member of the Financial Services Volunteer Corps. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. From 1981 to 2004 he was a member of the Commit- tee on International Security and Arms Control of the National Academy of Sciences, serving as vice chair from 1996 to 2004. He was a member of the Defense Policy Board of the Department of Defense from 1993 to 1997. Born in 1941 in Denver, Colorado, Steinbruner received his A.B. from Stanford University in 1963 and his Ph.D. in political science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1968. Otis B. Brown’s specialties are Earth satellite observations, development of quantitative methods for the processing and use of satellite remotely sensed observations to study Earth system processes, and the develop- ment and application of new approaches to study climate variability and stakeholder engagement. His current research interests are observing sys- tems, climate change impacts, adaptation strategies, and private-sector engagement. Brown served as dean of the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science for 14 years, while being at the ­ university for more than 40 years. He received the University of Miami Presidents Medal in honor of his outstanding leadership and distinguished accomplishments in his field of expertise as well as for his contributions to society. Brown holds a Ph.D. degree in physics, with a specialty in under- water optics, from the University of Miami; a master of science degree in theoretical physics from the University of Miami; and a bachelor of science degree in physics from North Carolina State University. Brown is a research professor at North Carolina State University. Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., is the director of the Earth System Science Inter­ disciplinary Center (ESSIC) and a professor in the Department of Atmo- spheric and Oceanic Science. Busalacchi joined ESSIC in 2000 after serving as chief of the NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes. He has studied tropical ocean circulation and its role in the coupled climate system. His interests include the study of climate variability and prediction, tropical ocean modeling, ocean remote sensing, and data assimilation. His research in these areas has supported a range of international and national research programs dealing with global change and climate, particularly as affected by the oceans. From 1989 to 1996 he served on the National Acad- emy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Advisory Panel and from 1991 to 1993 he was a mem- ber of the NAS/NRC Panel on Ocean Atmosphere Observations Supporting Short-Term Climate Predictions. From 1999 to 2006 he served as co- chairman of the Scientific Steering Group for the World Climate Research Programme on Climate Variability and Predictability (­ LIVAR). From C

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APPENDIX A 181 2003 to 2008 he served as chairman of the NAS/NRC Climate Research Committee and from 2007 to 2008 as chair of the NAS/NRC Committee on Earth Science and Application: Ensuring the Climate Measurements ­ from the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environ­ ental Satellite and m the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series Programs. ­ Presently, he serves as chair of the Joint Scientific Committee for the World Climate Research Programme and chair of the NAS/NRC Board on At- mospheric Sciences and Climate. He is a fellow of the American Meteoro- logical Society (AMS), American Geophysical Union, and in 2006 he was selected by the AMS to be the Walter Orr Roberts Interdisciplinary Science Lecturer. He received his Ph.D. in oceanography from Florida State Uni- versity in 1982. David Easterling is currently chief of the Scientific Services Division at Na- tional Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina. He served as an assistant professor in the Climate and Meteorology Program, Department of Geography, Indiana University–Bloomington from 1987 to 1990. In 1990 he moved to the Na- tional Climatic Data Center as a research scientist, was appointed principal scientist in 1999, and chief of scientific services in 2002. He has authored or co-authored more than 60 research articles in journals such as Science, Nature, and the Journal of Climate. Easterling was also a contributor to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Second and Third Assessment Reports, and a lead author for the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. He was a convening lead author for the U.S. Climate Change Sci- ence Plan Synthesis and Assessment Product on Climate Extremes and is a lead author of the chapter on the natural physical environment of the IPCC Special Report on Extreme Events. His research interests include the detection of climate change in the observed record, particularly changes in extreme climate events. He received his Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1987. Kristie L. Ebi is a consulting professor in the Department of Medicine at Stanford University and an independent consultant. She conducts research on the impacts of and adaptation to climate change, including on extreme events, thermal stress, food-borne safety and security, and vector-borne diseases. Her work focuses on understanding sources of vulnerability and designing adaptation policies and measures to reduce the health risks of climate change in a multi-stressor environment, including identifying in- dicators to measure changes in resilience and effectiveness of adaptation options. She has worked with the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Programme, the U.S. Agency for International De- velopment, and others on assessing vulnerability and implementing adap-

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182 CLIMATE AND SOCIAL STRESS tation measures in Central America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. She facilitated adaptation assessments for the health sector for the states of Maryland and Alaska. She was a coordinating lead author or lead author for the human health assessment for SAP4.6, the first U.S. National As- sessment, the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, and the International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development. Ebi’s scientific training includes an M.S. in toxicology and a Ph.D. and a master of public health degree in epidemi- ology, and two years of postgraduate research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. She has edited four books on aspects of climate change and has more than 100 publications. Thomas Fingar is the Oksenberg-Rohlen Distinguished Fellow and a senior scholar at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. From May 2005 through December 2008 he served as the first deputy director of National Intelligence for Analysis and, concurrently, as chairman of the National Intelligence Council. Fingar served previously as assistant secretary of the State Department’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research (2004–2005), principal deputy assistant secretary (2001–2003), deputy assistant secretary for analysis (1994–2000), director of the Office of Analysis for East Asia and the Pacific (1989–1994), and chief of the China Division (1986–1989). Between 1975 and 1986 he held a number of positions at Stanford University, including senior research associate in the Center for International Security and Arms Control. Fingar is a graduate of Cornell University (A.B. in government and history, 1968) and Stanford University (M.A., 1969, and Ph.D., 1977, both in political science). Leon Fuerth is the former national security adviser to Vice President Al Gore and the founding director of the Project on Forward Engagement. As the Vice President’s national security advisor, he served on the Principals’ Committee of the National Security Council alongside the secretary of state, the secretary of defense, and the President’s own national security adviser. Fuerth organized and managed five bi-national commissions with Russia, South Africa, Egypt, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. Before beginning his work on Capitol Hill in 1979, he spent 11 years as a foreign service officer, serv- ing in such places as the U.S. consulate in Zagreb and the state department. In 2001 Fuerth founded the Project on Forward Engagement to explore methods for incorporating systematic foresight into the policy process. The project focuses on developing “anticipatory governance,” a system of systems to (a) integrate foresight and policy, (b) network across governance, and (c) rapidly apply learning to policy and operations. The project is based out of the Elliott School of International Affairs at the George Washington University, where Fuerth holds an appointment as a research professor, and

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APPENDIX A 183 also operates at the National Defense University, where he is appointed as a distinguished research fellow. He holds a bachelor’s degree in English and a master’s degree in history from New York University, as well as a master’s degree in public administration from Harvard University.  Sherri Goodman is senior vice president, general counsel, and corporate secretary of CNA and serves as executive director of CNA’s Military Advi- sory Board. Goodman is an internationally recognized authority on energy, climate change, and national security, having led the projects by CNA’s Military Advisory Board on National Security and the Threat of Climate Change (2007) and Powering America’s Defense: Energy and the Risks to National Security. From 1993 to 2001 Goodman was deputy undersecre- tary of defense (environmental security), serving as the chief environmental, safety, and occupational health officer for the Department of Defense. In this position she was responsible for more than $5 billion in annual defense spending, including programs on energy efficiency and climate change, cleanup at active and closing bases, compliance with environmental laws, environmental cooperation with foreign militaries, and conservation of nat- ural and cultural resources. Goodman received a J.D. cum laude from the Harvard Law School and a master’s degree in public policy from Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. She received her B.A. summa cum laude from Amherst College. Jo L. Husbands is a scholar and senior project director with the Board on Life Sciences of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS), where she manages studies and projects to help mitigate the risks of the misuse of sci- entific research for biological weapons or bioterrorism. She also represents the NAS on the Biosecurity Working Group of the IAP, the global network of science academies, which also includes the academies of China, Cuba, Nigeria, Poland, and the United Kingdom. From 1991 to 2005 she was di- rector of the NAS Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) and its Working Group on Biological Weapons Control. Before joining the National Academies, she worked for several Washington, DC- based nongovernmental organizations focused on international security. Husbands is currently an adjunct professor in the Security Studies Program at Georgetown University, where she teaches a course on the international arms trade. She holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Minnesota and a master’s degree in international public policy (interna- tional economics) from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. Robin Leichenko is an associate professor in the Department of Geogra- phy at Rutgers University. Her research addresses the urban and regional

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184 CLIMATE AND SOCIAL STRESS impacts of global economic and environmental change in both advanced and developing countries. She recently co-authored Environmental Change and Globalization: Double Exposures, which focuses on how processes of globalization and climate change jointly affect vulnerable regions, social groups, and ecosystems. Other current research includes a study of the ef- fects of the globalization of consumption practices on housing demand and suburbanization patterns in China and the United States, a study of climate change vulnerability and adaptation in U.S. cities, and a study of the ef- fects of globalization trends on U.S. firms and workers. Recently completed research projects include a study of the impacts of international trade on employment and income inequality across U.S. regions and a study of the effects of globalization and climate change on rural agricultural regions in India and Southern Africa. She earned her Ph.D. in geography from Penn State. Robert J. Lempert is director of the Frederick S. Pardee Center for Lon- ger Range Global Policy and the Future Human Condition at the RAND Corporation. He was a member of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize–winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Lempert is an internationally known scholar in the field of decision making under conditions of deep uncertainty. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a fellow of the American Physical Society, and a member of the National Academy of Science’s Climate Research Committee. His research focuses on improv- ing methods for long-term policy analysis and for using data and models to support decision making where accurate forecasts are impossible. He is leading a major National Science Foundation–funded study that aims to improve methods for using scientific and other information to support decisions about climate change. He has worked extensively in the areas of environment, energy, and national security strategies; and he has con- ducted research on science and technology investment strategies for clients that include the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and several multinational firms. Marc Levy is deputy director of the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), a unit of Columbia University’s Earth Institute. He is also an adjunct professor in Columbia’s School of Inter- national and Public Affairs. He is a political scientist specializing in the human dimensions of global environmental change. His research focuses on climate–security linkages, emerging infectious disease modeling, anthro- pogenic drivers of global change, sustainability indicators, and vulnerability mapping. He is also leading a project in Haiti to reduce vulnerability to disaster risks by integrating ecology and economic development goals on a

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APPENDIX A 185 watershed scale. He has served on a number of international assessments, and is currently a lead author on the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report chapter on human security. David Lobell is an assistant professor at Stanford University in environ- mental earth system science and an associate director in Stanford’s Center on Food Security and the Environment. His research focuses on identify- ing opportunities to raise crop yields in major agricultural regions, with a particular emphasis on adaptation to climate change. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and received the 2010 James B. Macelwane Medal. He is currently serving as lead author on the “Food Production Systems and Food Security” chapter of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. Lobell received a Ph.D. in geological and environmental sciences from Stanford University in 2005 and a Sc.B. in applied mathematics from Brown University in 2000. Richard Stuart Olson is director of extreme event research and profes- sor in the Department of Politics and International Relations at Florida International University. A Fulbright Fellow in Colombia in 1968–1969, he returned to Latin America in 1972 to conduct field research on the Managua, Nicaragua, earthquake disaster of that year. Since then he has been directly involved in disaster response, evaluation, and research in more than 20 events, including Guatemala in 1976 (earthquake); Chile in 1985 (earthquake); Mexico City in 1985 (earthquakes); Colombia in 1985 (volcanic eruption and lahar) and 1994 (earthquake and landslide); the Dominican Republic, Honduras, and Nicaragua in 1998 (hurricanes); and El Salvador in 1986 and 2001 (earthquakes). In addition to more than 60 research articles, monographs, and major papers, Olson was lead author on the books The Politics of Earthquake Prediction (Princeton University Press, 1989) and Some Buildings Just Can’t Dance: Politics, Life Safety, and Disaster (Elsevier/JAI, 1999). He received a B.A. from the University of California, Davis, in 1967; an M.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1968; and a Ph.D. in 1974 from the University of Oregon, all in political science and emphasizing comparative and Latin American politics. Richard L. Smith is Mark L. Reed III Distinguished Professor of Statistics and professor of biostatistics at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and director of the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute. His expertise is in statistical aspects of climate change research and air pollution health effects. Smith is a fellow of the American Statisti- cal Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, and he won the Guy Medal in Silver of the Royal Statistical Society and the Distinguished Achievement

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186 CLIMATE AND SOCIAL STRESS Medal of the Section on Statistics and the Environment from the American Statistical Association. In 2004 he was the J. Stuart Hunter Lecturer of The International Environmetrics Society (TIES). He is also a chartered statisti- cian of the Royal Statistical Society. He obtained his Ph.D. from Cornell University. Paul C. Stern is a senior scholar at the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences, working primarily with the Board on Environmental Change and Society, formerly known as the Committee on Human Dimen- sions and Global Change. His work at the National Research Council has included directing studies on climate and global change, such as Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate (2009), Decision Making for the Environ- ment: Social and Behavioral Science Priorities (2005), and Global Environ- mental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions (1992), and he has been involved in the suite of America’s Climate Choices studies. His work has also included studies on international security issues that have produced reports such as International Conflict Resolution After the Cold War (2000) and a three-volume series on Behavior, Society, and International Conflict (1989–1993). His research interests include the determinants of environ- mentally significant behavior, particularly at the individual level; participa- tory processes for informing environmental decision making; processes for informing environmental decisions; and the governance of environmental resources and risks. He is coauthor of the textbook Environmental Prob- lems and Human Behavior (2nd ed., 2002) and of the 2003 article “The Struggle to Govern the Commons,” which won the 2005 Sustainability Sci- ence Award from the Ecological Society of America. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Psychological Association. He holds a B.A. from Amherst College and an M.A. and Ph.D. from Clark University, all in psychology.