a community or society sufficiently to require immediate emergency response to satisfy critical human needs (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2012).

Exposure: the presence of people, livelihoods, environmental services and resources, infrastructure, or economic, social, or cultural assets in places that could be adversely affected (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2012:3).

Human life-supporting system: any combination of natural systems and the human activities and institutions that use them to meet critical needs for human life and the well-being of individuals, communities, and societies.

Impact: a consequence for a human or natural system of the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors.

Recovery: actions taken by people, communities, and formal organizations in the aftermath of a disruptive event to compensate for the harm caused or to restore altered systems to a more desired state.

Response: the provision of emergency services and assistance, typically by formal organizations such as police, hospitals, and governmental or international organizations during or immediately after a disruptive event in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety, and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected (adapted from United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, 2009a).

Susceptibility: the degree to which a population, community, society, or system suffers or would suffer immediate harm as the result of exposure to a climate event. Thus, susceptibility is an indicator of the extent that an event would create disruptive change in the short term in that population, community, society, or system.

Vulnerability: the propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2012:3). Aspects of vulnerability include the susceptibility to being harmed and the likelihood of effective coping or response in the event of harm.

This section briefly describes the framework; its implications are elaborated throughout the report.

Climate Events and Vulnerabilities

People and societies depend for their lives and well-being on a number of complex and interrelated systems that may be affected by climate variability and change. The most important systems are those that meet critical human needs by protecting health and providing water, food, energy, shelter, transportation, and essential commercial products. Each of these human life-supporting systems is affected by physical and biological systems, including climate, and by the socioeconomic and political conditions that



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