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OPPORTUNITIES AND OBSTACLES IN LARGE-SCALE BIOMASS UTILIZATION The Role of the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Communities A WORKSHOP SUMMARY Sheena Siddiqui, Douglas Friedman, and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs Chemical Sciences Roundtable Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-FG02-07ER15872, the National Institutes of Health under Grant N01-OD-4-2139 (Task Order 25), and the National Science Foundation under Grant CHE-1231459 and Grant 0936388. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of the their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-27864-5 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-27864-3 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of ­Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal govern- ment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE CO-CHAIRS MARK A. BARTEAU, University of Michigan WILLIAM F. CARROLL JR., Occidental Chemical Corporation MEMBERS DONNA G. BLACKMOND, Scripps Research Institute MICHAEL R. BERMAN, Air Force Office of Scientific Research CAROLE BEWLEY, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases PAUL BRYAN,* Lygos, Inc. EMILIO BUNEL, Argonne National Laboratory ALLISON CAMPBELL, WR Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory MARK J. CARDILLO, Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, Inc. A.WELFORD CASTLEMAN, JR., Pennsylvania State University RICHARD R. CAVANAGH, National Institute of Standards and Technology KELSEY COOK, National Science Foundation JENNIFER S. CURTIS,* University of Florida MIGUEL GARCIA-GARIBAY, University of California, Los Angeles JACK KAYE, National Aeronautics and Space Administration JOHN KOZARICH, ActivX Biosciences, Inc. LUIS E. MARTINEZ,* Rollins College JOHN J. MCGRATH, National Science Foundation KENNETH G. MOLOY, DuPont Company Experimental Station ROBERT PEOPLES, American Carpet Institute MATTHEW S. PLATZ, National Science Foundation MICHAEL E. ROGERS, National Institute of General Medical Sciences ERIC ROHLFING, U.S. Department of Energy JAMES M. SOLYST, ENVIRON International Corporation KATHLEEN J. STEBE, University of Pennsylvania PATRICIA A. THIEL, Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University LEVI T. THOMPSON, University of Michigan NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer, (until May 2012) KATHRYN HUGHES, Senior Program Officer DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Responsible Staff Officer RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant * These members of the Chemical Sciences Roundtable oversaw the planning of the Workshop on Opportunities and Obstacles in Large-Scale Biomass Utilization but were not involved in the writing of this workshop summary. v

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY CO-CHAIRS PABLO G. DEBENEDETTI, Princeton University C. DALE POULTER, University of Utah MEMBERS ZHENAN BAO, Stanford University, California ROBERT BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley HENRY BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware EMILY CARTER, Princeton University, New Jersey DAVID CHRISTIANSON, University of Pennsylvania MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC CAROL J. HENRY, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories MICHAEL C. KERBY, ExxonMobil Chemical Company CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc. JOSEF MICHL, University of Colorado, Boulder SANDER G. MILLS, Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Corporation DAVID MORSE, Corning Incorporated ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, D.C. DARLENE J. S. SOLOMON, Aligent Laboratories, Santa Clara, California JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squib DAVID WALT, Tufts University NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer (until May 2012) KATHRYN HUGHES, Senior Program Officer DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Senior Program Associate RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant vi

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Preface The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council. It provides a science-oriented apolitical forum for leaders in the ­chemical sciences to discuss chemistry-related issues affecting government, industry, and universi- ties. Organized by the National Research Council’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. One way it does this is by organizing workshops that address issues in chemical science and technology that require national or more widespread attention. On May 31, 2012, the CSR held a one-day workshop that explored the current state of sustainable fuels and chemicals, and the issues surrounding their scalability for large-scale use. The workshop will also discussed the chemistry and chemical engineering opportuni- ties to sustainably produce large-scale quantities of biofuel. The workshop featured both formal presentations and working group deliberations in an effort to stimulate engaging discussions among participants from widely varying fields. Key questions that the participants were asked to address included: • What is the current state of technology in large-scale production of sustainable fuels and chemicals? • What are the benefits and weaknesses of current technologies? • What are the technological and commercial barriers to scaling sustainable technologies? • How can we best combine chemical technologies of different scales to maximize impact? • How can we identify ways in which chemical technologies of different practical scales can complement each other? This document summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place at the work- shop. In accordance with the policies of the CSR, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, ­ ocusing instead f on issues identified by the speakers and workshop participants. In addition, the organizing committee’s role was limited to planning the workshop. The workshop summary has been prepared by the workshop rapporteurs, Sheena Siddiqui, Douglas Friedman, and Joe Alper, as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. vii

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IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT INTERNET WEBSITES The Internet information provided in this Summary was correct, to the best of our knowl- edge, at the time of publication. It is important to remember, however, the dynamic nature of the Internet. Information on websites can be transient, and is not always validated or verifiable. Resources that are free and publicly available one day may require a fee or restrict access the next, and the location of items may change as menus and homepages are reorganized. viii

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional stan- dards of objectivity, clarity, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary: Maureen McCann, Purdue University Javad Tavakoli, Lafayette College Helena Chum, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Robert Brown, Iowa State University Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and sug- gestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by Sharon Haynie, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the authoring com- mittee and the institution. ix

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 1 Overview of the Workshop, 2 Organization of this Workshop Summary, 3 Online Component, 3 2 FEEDSTOCKS AND CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 5 Introduction, 5 Feedstocks and Raw Materials, 5 Conversion Technologies, 10 3 FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM BIOMASS VIA BIOLOGICAL ROUTES 17 Introduction, 17 Biological Routes to Fuels and Chemicals, 17 Breakout Discussion, 19 4 FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM BIOMASS VIA THERMOCHEMICAL ROUTES 21 Introduction, 21 Thermochemical Routes to Fuels and Chemicals, 21 Breakout Discussion, 25 5 HEAT AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS 27 Introduction, 27 Biomass Conversion to Heat and Power, 27 Breakout Discussion, 28 6 FINAL THOUGHTS 29 General Observations, 30 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 35 B Workshop Agenda 37 C Biographies 39 D Workshop Attendees 43 E Origin of and Information on the Chemical Sciences Roundtable 45 xi

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Acronyms BIO Biotechnology Industry Organization CSR Chemical Sciences Roundtable DOE U.S. Department of Energy GW gigawatt EISA Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory PSG&E Public Service Gas and Electric Company RFS2 U.S. Renewable Fuels Standards USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture xiii

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