• settings, to match youth with specialized treatment, and to target more intensive and expensive interventions on high-risk youth.

  • Use clearly specified interventions rooted in knowledge about adolescent development and tailored to the particular adolescent’s needs and social environment.
  • Engage the adolescent’s family as much as possible and draw on neighborhood resources to foster positive activities, prosocial development, and law-abiding behavior.
  • Eliminate interventions that rigorous evaluation research has shown to be ineffective or harmful.
  • Keep accurate data on the type and intensity of interventions provided and the results achieved.


  • Ensure that youth are represented throughout the process by properly trained counsel unless the right is voluntarily and intelligently waived by the youth.
  • Ensure that youth are adjudicated only if they are competent to understand the proceedings and assist counsel.
  • Facilitate participation by youth in all proceedings.
  • Intensify efforts to reduce racial/ethnic disparities, as well as other patterns of unequal treatment, in the administration of juvenile justice.
  • Ensure that youth perceive that they have been treated fairly and with dignity.
  • Establish and implement evidence-based measures for fairness based on both legal criteria and perceptions of youth, families, and other participants.

pices of the governor, the legislature, or the highest state court, charged with designing and overseeing a long-term process of juvenile justice reform. This body should

a. Undertake a formal, authoritative, and transparent review of its juvenile justice system aiming to align laws, policies, and practices at every stage of the process with evolving knowledge regarding

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