JJDPA’s Four Core Requirements
- Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders (DSO): Juveniles who are charged with or who have committed an offense that would not be a crime if committed by an adult, and juveniles who are not charged with any offenses, are not to be placed in secure detention or secure correctional facilities.
- Removal from Adult Jail and Lockup (Jail Removal): Juveniles are not to be detained or confined in any institution in which they would have contact with adult inmates. In addition, correctional staff working with both adult and juvenile offenders must have been trained and certified to work with juveniles.
- Sight and Sound Separation (Separation): Juveniles are not to be detained or confined in any jail or lockup for adults, except for juveniles who are accused of nonstatus offenses. These juveniles may be detained for no longer than six hours as they are processed, waiting to be released, awaiting transfer to a juvenile facility, or awaiting their court appearance. In addition, juveniles in rural locations may be held for up to 48 hours in jails or lockups for adults as they await their initial court appearance. Juveniles held in adult jails or lockups in both rural and urban areas are not to have contact with adult inmates, and any staff working with both adults and juveniles must have been trained and certified to work with juveniles.
- Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC): States are required to show that they are implementing juvenile delinquency prevention programs designed to reduce—without establishing or requiring numerical standards or quotas—the disproportionate number of minorities confined in their juvenile justice systems.
SOURCE: Nunez-Neto (2008).
states’ efforts to comply with the requirements of JJDPA and improve their juvenile justice programs. The office began to focus on issues that affect the system as a whole, such as drugs and serious juvenile offending, and to develop programs that would help coordinate system-wide responses. One of its training programs, the Serious Habitual Offender Comprehensive Action Program, called for the active participation and coordination of all agencies in the juvenile justice system—police, prosecution, courts, probation, corrections, aftercare, and human service agencies—to deal with serious juvenile offenders. OJJDP started looking outside the bounds of