• what are successful arrangements for managing transaction costs;
  • the roles of public and private institutions in facilitating licensing;
  • the relationship of transaction costs to legal rules such as compulsory licenses; and
  • changes in transaction costs with new technological and business developments.

With respect to the enforcement challenges, research could help determine

  • how much is spent by governments and private parties on copyright enforcement;
  • against whom enforcement efforts are targeted and what remedies are sought and granted;
  • the results of enforcement efforts in terms of compensation, prevention, education, and deterrence;
  • how the effectiveness of enforcement efforts is changing with the expansion of digital networks;
  • the costs and benefits of current enforcement methods vis-à-vis those associated with proposed new enforcement methods;
  • the relative vulnerability of different business models to infringement; and
  • the costs and benefits of fair use exceptions and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) safe harbors.

In assessing the balance between copyright protection and the statutory exceptions and limitations to copyright research could help determine

  • the costs and benefits of copyright exceptions and limitations in terms of the economic outputs and welfare effects of those individuals, businesses, educational institutions, and other entities that rely on them;
  • how copyright and the various categories of limits and exceptions interact with innovative and/or disruptive technologies and platforms; and
  • what adverse effects, if any, exceptions and limitations have on copyright holders and their potential to generate economic outputs and welfare effects.

Eventually, research will help inform decisions about key aspects of copyright policy, including

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