• In studies of some copyright sectors, the principal focus is on intermediaries’ revenues rather than the impact on creators, professional and amateur, and consumers of content.
  • There has been uneven industry coverage, with a great deal of attention to music, moderate attention to scientific publishing and film, much less attention to news and book publishing and software.
  • Variations across industries, countries, and time are poorly understood.
  • There has been very little emphasis placed on the ease or difficulty of transactions to obtain use rights.
  • Little consideration has been given to the relative costs and effectiveness of legal remedies (injunctions, civil damages, notice and take down, and criminal penalties) vis-à-vis technical protections (digital rights management and filtering).
  • There has been little analysis of the incidence and cost of litigation and what impact litigation costs have on willingness to bring or settle complaints.
  • Despite continuing rapid technological change, rendering even some recent findings obsolete, very little work has been motivated by hypotheses about future developments.
  • Studies lack a historical perspective on how the copyright system has adapted to technological change in the past.
  • Alternative enforcement mechanisms, such as, graduated response and filtering, have received little attention.
  • There have been few transnational studies of enforcement mechanisms and their impact on local production.
  • There is little understanding of how copyright protection technologies affect the deployment of new general purpose technologies (e.g., cloud computing).


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