public and private institutions. Then we will look at the relevant data sources for digital copyright in particular. See Table 4-1 for an annotated bibliography of these data sources.

The most comprehensive public domain report on the behaviors and demographics of Internet users is the Federal Communications Commission’s High-Speed Services for Internet Access, which focuses on the status of broadband in the United States. It shows the number of consumers connected on broadband through DSL, cable modem, FTTP, and satellite. The report further breaks down each population group into seven tiers both in terms of upload and download speeds. It also includes a geographical mapping of connection speeds on a state-by-state basis.

The Pew Research Center publishes an annual report that shows the number of Internet users by gender, race, age, household income, education, and community type. This report includes data on broadband and wireless penetration as well as the percentage of Internet users who carry out certain activities online such as reading the news or playing games. Together, the Federal Communications Commission and Pew reports describe some aspects of the user dynamics of the digital world and have the potential to model different aspects of consumer behavior online.

Private firms collect a great deal of information on products, prices, and volumes of paid consumption (see Table 4-2). Nielsen, for example, collects very detailed data on the quantities of books and music recordings sold as far back as 2001 in the case of books and the 1990s in the case of music. Nielsen also conducts a quarterly survey, the A2/M2 Three Screen Report, that tracks the penetration of broadband, HDTV, DVR, and smartphones. In addition, the report contains the number of users for and the hours spent on TV, Internet, and mobile phones broken down by age demographics. Although some researchers have gained access to Nielsen data, they have not been widely used because of the restrictive terms on which they are available.

Movie box office revenue data are available from the Internet Movie Database (IMDb) and Box Office Mojo, among other sources. Information on sales of discs is available from Opus and other providers. The RIAA now provides substantial data on its member companies’ current and historical sales activity.

Perhaps the biggest void is data on the volume of unpaid consumption, yet that, too, is changing. Big Champagne has tracked the popularity of copyright-protected works through unpaid distribution channels for a decade. And Google’s recently developed Transparency Report portal provides real-time and historical data on take-down and user data requests.

Another regularly published report, by the International Data Corporation (IDC), shows the size and growth of digital data over time. The

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