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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 2009-10-15 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation; Contract/Grant No. ll05-0789 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Ford Foundation; Contract/Grant No. LG-00-10-0247 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Museum and Library Sciences; and Contract/Grant No. SMA-l014801 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Additional funding provided by the American Chemical Society; the Business Software Alliance; the Entertainment Software Association; Google Inc.-Tides Foundation; Intel; Microsoft; the Motion Picture Association; and Pamela Samuelson and Robert J. Gulshko. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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