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Index A Acacia species, 23, 62, 92 Adhatoda vasica, 63, 118 Alexandrian Laurel, 116 Alkali Sacaton, 20, 81 American Oil Palm, 114 Anemop~i, californica, 118 Argan, 25 Argania ~pino~a, 25 Arthrocnemum fruticosum, ~ t5 Asparagus, 35 A~paragu~ officinalis, 35 Atriplcz triangulari~, 27 Atriplcz species, 27, 31, 81, 83 Azadirachta indica, 118 B Bajra, 20 Balar`*c~ species, 117 Bamboo Palm, 115 Barley, 36 Bati~ maritima, 26 Bcta wlgaru, 17, 66 Butca mono~perma, 63, 121 C Calophyllum inophyllum, 116 Caeuarina species, 56 Catharanthu~ roesw, 118 Channel Millet, 78 131 Chenopodium quinea, 20 Chinese Tallow Tree, 105 Chlorie gayana, 80 Chry~othamnue nau~eo~u`, 108 Citrullus colocynthi~, 119 Coccoloba uvifera, 33 Coconut Palm, 113 Coco~ nucifcra, 113 Common Indian Saltwort, 28 Common Purslane, 26 Common Reed, 109 Cordgrasses, 79 Cotton, 112 Creosote Bush, 105 Crithmum maritimum, 27 D Dcrru trifoliata, 119 Dhaincha, 105 Di~tichhs palmer), 19 Diatichlis species, 77 EEchinochloa turncrana, 78 Eelgrass, 19 Elacis olcifcra, 114 Elcochari~ dulcu,, 26 Elytrigia clongatum, 36, 81 Esparto Grass, 110 Eucalyptu~ species, 55

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132 Gos~ypium hiru~utum, 112 Grindelia species, 105 Guayule, 108 H Halo~arcia species, 91 Hedy~arum carno~um, 81 Hibi~cue cannabinw, 111 Hibucue tiliacow, 111 Honey, 38 Hordeum vulg are, 36 I Ice Plant, 27 Indian Almond, 23 J Jojoba, 107 Junew species, 109 K Kallar Grass, 67, 75 Karanjin, 63 Kenaf, 111 Kewda, 103 Kochia species, 31, 90 Kostcletzkya virginica, 21 L Larrca tridentata, 105 Lcptochloa fuJca, 67, 75 Leuccana Icacoccphala, 92 Licuala epinosa, 115 Limonium specic~, 121 Lyciumpcmordii, 33 M Mairicna species, 81, 89 Maize, 38 Mangroves, 58, 119 Manicaria saccifcra, 115 Manila Tamarind, 63 Mclalcaca species, 60 Mcr~ha species, 104 Meacmbryanthemum crystallinum, 27 Monkey Cap Palm, 115 N Neem, 118 Nibung Palm, 115 Nipa Palm, 66, 113 Nitraria billardicri, 117 o Onco~perma filimcntosa, 115 Oryza eativa, 36 p Pandan~ fa~cic~aru, 103 Pandanu~ tcotor", 110 Palmer Saltgrass, 19 Parthenium aryentatum, 108 PaJpal?`m vaginatum, 75 Pearl Millet, 20 Pcnnisetum typhoide~, 20 Periwinkle, 118 Phragrrutc~ australie, 109 Pine Cone Palm, 115 Pitheccllobium dulec, 63 Pongamia pinnata, 63 Portulaca oleracca, 26 Prosopis species, 52, 93 Puccincllia species, 81 Q Quandong, 33 Quinoa, 20 R Raphia tasdigera, 115 Raphia vinifcra, 115 Rhizophora species, 58 Rhodes Grass, 80 Rice, 36 Rubber Rabbitbrush, 108 Rush, 109 Russian-Thistle, 76, 119 S Saccharum gri]fithfi, 111 Salicornia species, 25, 31

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133 Sabola ibenca, 76, 119 SalJola species, 31, 119 Saltgrasses, 77 Saltwort, 26 Salvadora species, 32 Samphire, 91 Sand Couch, 38 Santalum acuminatum, 33 Sapium ~cbifc rum, 105 Sea Fennel, 27 Seagrape, 33 Seashore Mallow, 21 Seaside Pur~lane, 26 Scebania bi~pino~a, 105 Sc~uuium portulaca~trum, 26 Silt Grass, 75 Simmondsia chinen~ie, 107 Southern Cattail, 110 Spartina species, 79 Sporobolw airoidcs, 20, 81 Sporobolus species, 20,81 Stipa tena~sima, 110 Suacda maritime, 28 T Tall Wheatgrass, 36,81 Tamariz species, 61 Tceticornia species, 23 Tcr~unalia catappa, 23 Textile Screwpine, 110 Thinopyrum bcasarabicum, 38 lkiNcum acstiwm, 36 Typha domingensi~, 1lo U Urochondra ~ctulo~a, 112 W Wheat, 36 Wild Water Chestnut, 26 z Zca ma~, 38 Zo~tcra marina, 19

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34 Board on Science and Technology for International Development RALPH H. SMUCKLER, Dean of International Studies and Programs, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Chairman Members JORDON J. BARUCH, President, Jordan Baruch Associates Washington, D.C. PETER D. BELL, President, The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, New York, New York GEoRGE T. CURLIN, The Fogarty International Center, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland DIRK FRANKENBERG, Director, Marine Science Program, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill ELLEN L. FRosT, Corporate Director, International Affairs, United Technologies Corporation, Washington, D.C. FREDERICK HoRNE, Dean of the College of Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis RoBERT KATES, Director, Alan Shaw Feinstein World Hunger Program, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island CHARLES C. MUSCOPLAT, Executive Vice President, Molecular Genetics, Inc., Minnetonka, Minnesota ANTHONY SAN PIETRO, Professor of Plant Biochern~stry, Indiana University, Bloomington ALEXANDER SHAKOW, Director, Department of Strategic Planning and Review, The World Bank, Washington, D.C. BARBARA D. WEBSTER, Associate Dean, Office of Research, University of California, Davis GERALD P. DINEEN, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, en officio WILLIAM E. GoRDoN, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences, en officio

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135 Board on Science and Technology for International Development Publications and Information Services (HA-476E) Office of International Affairs National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 USA How to Order BOSTID Reports BOSTID manages programs with developing countries on behalf of the U.S. National Research Council. Reports published by BOSTID are sponsored in most instances by the U.S. Agency for International Development. They are intended for distribution to readers in de- veloping countries who are affiliated with governmental, educational, or research institutions and who have professional interest in the subject areas treated by the reports. BOSTID books are available from selected international distributors. For more efficient and expedient service, please place your order with your local distributor. (See list on back page.) Requestors from areas not yet represented by a distributor should send their orders directly to BOSTID at the above address. Energy 33. Alcohol Feels: Optiom for Developing Countries. 1983, 128pp. Examines the potential for the production and utilization of alcohol fuels in developing countries. Includes information on various trop- ical crops and their conversion to alcohols through both traditional and novel processes. ISBN 0-309-04160-0. 36. Producer Gas: Another Fuel for Motor Abort. 1983, 112pp. During World War IT Europe and Asia used wood, charcoal, and coal to fuel more than a million gasoline and diesel vehicles. How- ever, the technology has since been virtually forgotten. This report reviews producer gas and its modern potential. ISBN 0-309-04161-9. 56. The Diffilsion of Biomass Energy Technologies in Developing Countries. 1984, 120pp. Examines economic, cultural, and polit- ical factors that affect the introduction of biomass-based energy

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136 technologies in developing countries. It includes information on the opportunities for these technologies as well as conclusions and rec- ommendations for their application. ISBN ~309-04253-4. Technology Options 14. More Water for Arid Hand: PromiRmg Etymologies and Research Opportunities. 1974, 153pp. Outlines littIe-known but promising technologies to supply and conserve water in arid areas. ISBN 0-30~04151-1. 21. Making Aquatic Weed Useful: Some Perspectives for Develop mg Colmtries. 1976, 175pp. Describes ways to exploit aquatic weeds for grazing, and by harvesting and processing for use as compost, animal feed, pulp, paper, and fuel. Also describes utilization for sewage and industrial wastewater. ISBN ~309 04153-X. 34. Priorities ~ Biotechnology ResearEh for International Devel- opment: Proceedmgs of a Workshop. 1982, 261pp. Report of a workshop organized to examine opportunities for biotechnology re- search in six areas: 1) vaccines, 2) animal production, 3) monoclonal antibodies, 4) energy, 5) biological nitrogen fixation, and 6) plant cell and tissue culture. ISBN ~309 04256-9. 61. Fisheries Technologies for Developing Counl~ies. 1987, 167pp. Identifies newer technologies in boat building, fishing gear and meth- ods, coastal mariculture, artificial reefs and fish aggregating devices, and processing and preservation of the catch. The emphasis is on practices suitable for artLsanal fisheries. ISBN ~309L0426~7. Plants 25. Topical Legumes: :Resources for the Entire. 1979, 331pp. Describes plants of the family Leguminosae, including root crops, pulses, fruits, forages, timber and wood products, ornamentals, and others. ISBN ~309-0415~6. 37. Wmged Bean: A High Protein Crop for the Tropics. 1981 (2nd edition), 59pp. An update of BOSTID's 1975 report of this neglected tropical legume. Describes current knowledge of winged bean and its promise. ISBN 0-309-04162-7.

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137 47. Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop. 1983, 81pp. Before the time of Cortez, grain amaranths were staple foods of the Aztec and Inca. Today this nutritious food has a bright future. The report also discusses vegetable amaranths. ISBN ~309-04171-6. 53. Jojoba: New Chop for Arid [ends. 1985, 102pp. In the last 10 years, the domestication of jojoba, a littIe-known North American desert shrub, has been all but completed. This report describes the plant and its promise to provide a unique vegetable of! and many likely industrial uses. ISBN 0-309-04251-8. 63. Quality-Prote~n Maize. 1988, 130pp. Identifies the promise of a nutritious new form of the planet's third largest food crop. Includes chapters on the importance of maize, malnutrition and protein qual- ity, experiences with quality-protein maize (QPM), QPM's potential uses in feed and food, nutritional qualities, genetics, research needs, and limitations. ISBN 0-30~04262-3. 64. T`iticale: A Promising Addition to the WorId's Cereal Grains. 1988, 105pp. Outlines the recent transformation of triticale, a hybrid of wheat and rye, into a food crop with much potential for many marginal lands. Includes chapters on triticale's history, nutritional quality, breeding, agronomy, food and feed uses, research needs, and limitations. ISBN 0-30~04263-1. 67. Lost Crops of the Incas. 1989, 415pp. The Andes is one of the seven major centers of plant domestication but the world is largely unfamiliar with its native food crops. When the Conquistadores brought the potato to Europe, they ignored the other domesticated Andean crops-fruits, legumes, tubers, and grains that had been cultivated for centuries by the Incas. This book focuses on 30 of the "forgotten" Incan crops that show promise not only for the Andes but for warm-temperate, subtropical, and upland tropical regions in many parts of the world. ISBN 0-3004264-X. 69. Saline Agriculture: Salt-Tolerant Plants for Developing Conn- tries. 1990, 145pp. The purpose of this report is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant plants and the the special needs they may fill in developing countries. Examples of the production of food, fodder, fuel, and other products are included. Salt-tolerant plants can use land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can

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138 harness saline resources that are generally neglected or considered as impediments to rather than opportunities for development. ISBN 0~30~0418~9. Tnnwations In Tropical Forestry 35. Sowmg Forests from the Air. 1981, 64pp. Describes experiences with establishing forests by sowing tree seed from aircraft. Suggests testing and development of the techniques for possible use where forest destruction now outpaces reforestation. ISBN ~30~04257-7. 40. Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Produc- tion. Volume IT, 1983, 92pp. Examines the selection of species of woody plants that seem suitable candidates for fue~wood plantations in developing countries. ISBN () 309-04164-3. 41. Manginm and Other Fast-Grow~ng Acacias for the Hnm;d Trop- ics. 1983, 63pp. Highlights 10 acacia species that are native to the tropical rain forest of Australasia. That they could become valuable forestry resources elsewhere is suggested by the exceptional perfor- mance of Acacia mangium in Malaysia. ISBN 0-309-04165-1. 42. CaBiandra: A Versatile Small Tree for the Humid Tropics. 1983, 56pp. This Latin American shrub is being widely planted by villagers and government agencies in Indonesia to provide firewood, prevent erosion, provide honey, and feed livestock. ISBN ~309- 0416~X. 43. Camarmas: Nitrogen-Fixmg Bees for Adverse Sites. 1983, 118pp. These robust, nitrogen-fixing, Australasian trees could be- come valuable resources for planting on harsh, eroding land to pro- vide fuel and other products. Eighteen species for tropical lowlands and highlands, temperate zones, and semiarid regions are high- lighted. ISBN 0-30~04167-8. 52. Lellcacna: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics. 1984 (2nd edition), 100pp. Describes a multipurpose tree crop of potential value for much of the humid lowland tropics. Leucaena is one of the fastest growing and most useful trees for the tropics. ISBN 0-309-0425X.

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139 Managmg Tropical An;m:~1 Resollrces 32. The Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underntilized Ani- mal. 1981, 188pp. The water buffalo is performing notably well in re- cent trials in such unexpected places as the United States, Australia, and Brazil. The report discusses the anunal's promise, particularly emphasizing its potential for use outside Asia. ISBN 0-309-04159-7. 44. BlltterBy Farmmg m Paplla New Glimea. 1983, 36pp. Indige- nous butterflies are being reared in Papua New Guinea visages in a formal government program that both provides a cash income in remote rural areas and contributes to the conservation of wildlife and tropical forests. ISBN 0-309-04168-6. 45. Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics. 1983, 60pp. In most parts of the tropics, crocodilian populations are being decimated, but programs In Papua New Guinea and a few other countries demon- strate that, with care, the animals can be raised for profit while protecting the wild populations. ISBN ~309-04169-4. 46. Littie-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic future. 1983, 133pp. Describes banteng, madura, mithan, yak, kouprey, babirusa, Javan warty pig, and other obscure but possibly globally useful wild and domesticated animals that are indigenous to Asia. ISBN 0~309-0417~8. 68. Microli~restock: LittIe-Enown Small Anmlale with a Prom~s- ing Economic Fllture. 1989, approx. 300pp. Discusses the promise of small breeds and species of livestock for Third World villages. Identifies more than 40 species; including miniature breeds of cat- tle, sheep, goats, and pigs; eight types of poultry; rabbits; guinea pigs and other rodents; dwarf deer and antelope; iguanas; and bees. ISBN ~309-04265-8. Health 49. Opportunities for the Control of Dracuncllliasis. 1983, 65pp. Dracunculiasis is a parasitic disease that temporarily disables many people in remote, rural areas in Africa, India, and the Middle East. Contains the findings and recorrunendations of distinguished

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140 scientists who were brought together to discuss dracunculiasis as an international health problem. ISBN 0-30~04172-4. 55. Manpower Needs and Career Opportunities ~ the Field As- .~I~ u' rector Biology. LYLE, oupp. Recommends ways to develop and train the manpower necessary to ensure that experts will be available in the future to understand the complex ecological rela- tionships of vectors with human hosts and pathogens that cause such diseases as malaria, dengue fever, filariasis, and schistosorn~asis. ISBN 0-309-04252-6. ~ ~ it_ _ 1 _ __ ~- _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ 60. U.S. Capacity to Address Topical infectious Diseases. 1987, 225pp. Addresses U.S. manpower and institutional capabilities in both the public and private sectors to address tropical infectious disease problems. ISBN 0-30~04259~3. Resource Management 50. Environmental Change In the West Affican Sahel. 1984, 96pp. Identifies measures to help restore critical ecological processes and thereby increase sustainable production in dryland farming, irrigated agriculture, forestry and fue~wood, and animal husbandry. Provides baseline information for the formulation of environmentally sound projects. ISBN ~309-04173-2. 51. Agroforestry In the West African Sahel. 1984, 86pp. Provides development planners with information regarding traditional agro- forestry systems their relevance to the modern Sahel, their design, social and institutional considerations, problems encountered in the practice of agroforestry, and criteria for the selection of appropriate plant species to be used. ISBN 0-309-04174-0. 70. The Improvement of Topical and Subtropical Rangelands. 1990. 380pp. This report characterizes tropical and subtropical rangelands, describes social adaptation to these rangelands, discusses the impact of socioeconomic and political change upon the manage- ment of range resources, and explores culturally and ecologically sound approaches to rangeland rehabilitation. Selected case studies are included. ISBN-~309-04261-5.

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141 General 65. Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Centllry. 1988, 79pp. This report commemorates the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Development. The symposium on which this report is based provided an excellent opportunity to describe and assess the contribution of science and technology to the development of Third World countries and to focus attention on what science and technology are likely to accomplish in the decade to come. Forthcoming Books from BOSTID Traditional Fermented Foods. (1990) Neem. (1990) BOSTID Publication Distributors United States: Agribookstore 1611 N. Kent Street Arlington, VA 22209 agAccess PO Box 2008 Davis, CA 95617 l:urope: I. T. Publications 103-105 Southhampton Row London WC1B 4H, England SPA T Varnbuelstrasse 14 Ch-9000 St. GaHen, SwitzterIand S. Toeche-Mittler TRIOPS Department Hindenburgstrasse 33 6100 Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

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142 T.O.O.~. Publications Entropotdok 68a/69a 1018 AD Amsterdam, Netherlands Asia: Asian Institute of Technology Library ~ Regional Documentation Center PO Box 2754 Bangkok 10501, Thailand National Bookstore Sales Manager PO Box 1934 Manila, Philippines University of Malaya Coop. Bookshop Ltd. University of Malaya Main Library Building 59200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Researchco Periodicals 1865 Street No. 139 Tri Nagar Delhi 110 035, India China Nati. Publications Import ~ Export Corp. PO Box 88F Beijing, Peoples Republic of China South America: Enlace Cotta. Carrera 6a. No. 51-21 Bogota, D.E., Colombia

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143 For More Information To receive more "formation about BOSTID reports and programs, please fill in the attached coupon and mad! it to: Board on Science and Technology for International Development Publications and Information Services (HA-476E) Office of International Affairs National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 USA Your comments about the value of these reports are also welcome. Name Title Institution Street Address City Country Postal Code 70 Name Title Institution Street Address City Country Postal Code 70

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