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51 by stabilizing the ecosystem and by providing niches and protection for other plants and animal. Criteria for selecting plant species for use as fue~wood in saline environments include: ~ Rate of Growth and Regrowth Although many species may survive in saline habitats, their growth ~ often too slow to provide any significant production. The ability to coppice is of great prac- tical importance. Combustible litter and branches shed from some species is an advantage. High-density wood is preferred, but there is generally a negative correlation between density and growth rate. Species should be chosen that are easy to handle, cut, and split. The wood should burn evenly and slowly without sparks or noxious smoke. ~ Establishment In saline environments, establishment may be difficult. There may only be a brief period suitable for planting. Special preparation such as mulching, furrowing, or ridging may be required to facilitate early growth. Some halophytes can tolerate harsher conditions later in their growth than at germination. . Adaptability- Some species require specialized habitats or microclimates and will not survive in ah elements of the landscape or across an entire climatic zone. Plants with significant plasticity in climatic and site tolerance have greater potential for success. ~ Diverse Use Salt-tolerant trees and shrubs can serve other purposes. They can reduce wind erosion, protect row crops, provide shade or forage for livestock, and serve as a first step in land restora- tion. Spiny salt-tolerant shrubs can be planted as living fences. Trees can also serve to control salinity through their ability to use more water than crops or pasture on an annual bash, and to draw it from deeper in the soil profile. Candidate species that provide such benefits in addition to fuel production would be advantageous. Since it is unlikely that any species will meet all these require- ments, compromise is necessary. Although selection is usually based on performance in a similar environment, some species ~travel" poorly, some show extreme variation In regard to source (prove- nance), and some perform remarkably well far outside their native climate. In Australia, a consortium of business and academic groups* is developing a multitiered approach to provide salt-tolerant trees for *Tree Tech Australia, PO Box 252, Applecross, WA 6153, Australia.

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53 culture at NaC! concentrations up to 3.3 percent. Six of the species tested had seedlings that grew in 3.3 percent NaCI. P. ju~ipora, from West Africa, seemed to have the best potential for rapid growth at high salinity. Other Prosop" surviving at 3.3 percent NaC] were P. chi~ensis, P. articuiata, P. abbe, P. nigra/pexuosa, and P. a~ba/nigra. P. tamarugo, identified earlier as having exceptional salt tolerance, died from stem fungal disease before salt was introduced. P. pubescens seedlings succumbed at 1.2 percent NaCI, possibly from fungal disease as well. P. ju~ipora has few soil and water constraints. It can be grown in either dry or waterlogged saline areas, and on degraded soils with low fertility. A thorny, deciduous, large-crowned, deep-rooted tree, P. julipora may grow to 10 m or more, depending on the variety and site. It is native to Central America and northern South America, but it has been widely propagated in Africa and Asia, particularly in India. In India, P. ju~ipora has spread throughout the state of Tamer Nadu where it is used for fuel by many of the rural poor, and its availability is credited with a reduction of cutting in natural forests. In one district, where substantial saline patches occur, farmers use P. ju~iflora as a fallow species for four years. The trees are harvested for Redwood or, in many cases, converted to charcoal. The land can then be used for food crops for at least two years, after which trees are replanted. IN Pakistan, more than 300 hectares of P. ju~ipora have been suc- cessfully established in sandy plains and dunes along the seacoast. Nursery-grown seedlings were irrigated with underground saline wa- ter for two years. After this, irrigation was discontinued, but the plants continued to grow well, using their extensive root systems to absorb rainwater and dew. Sunultaneous plantings of P. ju~iflora in non-sandy strata with poorer percolation did not fare as well, apparently because of salt buildup in the root system. The wood produced in the sandy environment had a high heat content and low ash, indicating its suitability as fue~wood. Many other species of Prosopis yield good fue~wood as well. P. chilensis has been planted extensively in arid areas and P. alba has been used for reforesting dry saline areas. P. ruscifolia and P. pallida also have potential for use on saline soils and P. cineraria tolerates soils with a pH of over 9. About 9,000 hectares of Prosopis have been planted in the

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55 Bhavnagar area of India. Half is used by villagers for fue~wood and half belongs to the forestry department. Eucalyptus Of the more than 500 species of Eucalyptus, relatively few are salt tolerant. Among those that are salt tolerant, there is a broad range of adverse environments where they occur. For example, a recently described and appropriately named species, E. halophita, occurs on the edges of salt lakes in Australia. E. angulosa grows in white coastal sand in Western and South Australia. It is used as a windbreak in coastal areas and may be grown where salt spray is a problem. E. torquata occurs in South Australia, often on shallow rocky soils and in association with Atriplex species. E. camaldulensis grows widely in arid areas, usually along per- manent or seasonal inland streams. An Australian native, it is now planted in many Mediterranean countries and is used for fue~wood, charcoal, poles, and for paper and particleboard manufacture. It is adapted to tropical and temperate climates and will grow well on poor soils and in areas where there are prolonged dry seasons (provided its roots can reach groundwater) or where periodic wa- terIogging occurs. It is not suitable for planting in humid tropical lowlands, nor in coastal areas where it would be exposed to wind- blown salt. Of its numerous provenances, a few have been shown to be highly salt-tolerant. E. occidentalis is drought resistant and tolerates high tempera- tures, salinity, and waterlogging. In Western Australia, it has been found in clayey soils adjacent to salt lakes. E. saTgentii is also native to Western Australia, where it ~ frequently found in areas where salt appears on the soil surface. It is reported to be one of the hardiest species and one of the last to die in areas of increasing salinity. Of several Australian eucalyptus species tested in Israel, the highest growth rate and resistance to salinity (~30 dS/m) were shown by E. occidentalis and E. sargentfi; at lower salinity levels (20- 30 dS/m), E. spathulata, E. kondininensis, and E. Eozophieba also exhibited rapid growth. Eucalyptus species reported by Blake (1981) to survive salt con- centrations of ~1.8 percent are E. calophyita, E. erythrocorys, E. incrassata, E. [argiforens, E. neglects, and E. tereticornis. Other species that have been reported to grow well in saline environments are listed in Table 8.

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57 :.0.: ~ Mangrove forests survive waterlogging' salinity, and strong coastal winds. They help protect shorelines and serve as nurseries for many fish species. (NOAA) Caribbean. It can grow on loose seashore sand within a few meters of high tide. Its success as an introduced species is due to its ability to grow on nutrient-poor soils and to tolerate windblown salt, high alkalinity levels (pH 9.0-9.5), and moderate groundwater salinity. In a study of the effect of salinity on growth and nitrogen fixation in C. eq?`isetifolia, it was found that increasing the NaC] level to 200 mM (about 1.2 percent) had little effect on nitrogen fixation. At intermediate levels of salinity (50-100 mM NaCI), nitrogen fixation and growth were greater than for the control. Not all species of Casuarina are salt tolerant and there is signif- icant variation among those that are. C. cristata, C. glauca, and C. obese are all reporter] to be more salt tolerant than C. equisetifolia and more suitable for heavier clay soils and waterlogged conditions. In recent testing for performance in saTine-wateriogged conditions, C. Mesa grew better than Eucalyptus camaldulensis and five other Eucalyptus species (van der Moeze} et al., 1988~. C. obesa is noted for its ability to grow in warm subhumid and semiarid zones. It produces good fueTwood and is useful in shelterbelts.

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58 TABLE 8 Salt-Tolerant Eucalyptus Species. Eucalyptus Species Over Site Charactensucs E. astringent E. brockwayi E. calycogona E. campaspe E. concinna E. diptera E. floc1aonuze E. forrestuana E. gracilis E. gri~thsii E. Iehmannii E. (foecunda) leptophylla E. Iesouefi E. Iongicornis E. merricldae E. ovularis E. platycorys E. platypus E. salm~nophloua E. woodwardii Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry, Coastal Dry DIY, Coastal Dry, Clay Dry Dry, Coastal Dry Dry Dry DIY Dry DIY Dry Dry Dly SOURCE: Chippendale, 1973- Rhixophora Mangrove forests grow on 45 million hectares of tropical coastal and estuarine areas. They are tolerant of waterlogging, high salin- ity and humudity, and strong coastal winds. Although seawater is tolerated, most species grow best at lower salinity lever, particu- larly where there is freshwater seepage to moderate seawater salinity. Studies on the mangrove Av~cennia marina, indicate that growth is poor in fresh water; maximum biomass production occurs at salinity levels of 25-50 percent of seawater. Rhizophora species range from small shrubs to tall trees. While R. mangle and R. mucronata are usually about 2~25 m tall, R. apiculata can grow to heights of 60 m. The principal use for most Rhizophora species is for fue~wood and charcoal. Most species also produce a strong, attractive timber, notably durable in water. Mangroves have the added value of reduc- ing typhoon damage, binding and building sand and soil, serving as spawning and nursery grounds for many species of fish and shellfish, and as nesting and Welling sites for seabirds. Mangroves serve as a

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In addltlon to Mel use, mangroves are cut far boat construction (top) and for conversion to paper pulp (bottom). (OF PbotoUbr~/X~ler ~coultre)

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60 special link between the land and sea; inorganic nutrients from the land become organic nutrients and are passed on to the sea. R. mangle has been planted for coastal protection in Florida and Hawaii. R. mucronata is used for replanting cleared areas in Malaysia. Mangrove swamps have been managed for fue~wood in Malaysia for more than 80 years with harvest on a midyear cycle. In Indonesia, the rotation is 20 years for firewood and 35 years for charcoal. In Thailand, a midyear rotation is practiced for producing poles, firewood, and charcoal. The black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, of the New World tropics and subtropics, as well as the Old World species A. marina and A. officinalis, inhabiting salt marshes, tidal swamps, and muddy coasts, provide fuel, charcoal, and wood for boats, furniture, posts, pilings, and utensils. Mangroves are generally slow growing and cannot tolerate in- discrirninate lopping. Although some species can be established by direct seeding, if strip-felling rather than clear-cutting is used for harvest, natural regeneration will occur. The Mangrove Research Center* in the Philippines has a mangrove nursery and a working group on the silviculture of mangroves. Melaleuca Melaleuca quinquenervia and M. viridi.gora are often found to- gether occupying slightly higher ground next to mangrove swamps. M. quinquenervia is deep rooted and can grow on nutrient-poor coastal soils. It can grow near the beach and survives windblown salt. Although it grows best in fresh water, it can tolerate saline groundwater. It is an excellent fueTwood and regenerates readily af- ter coppicing. It seeds profusely and can become a nuisance in areas where occasional fires create a suitable seedbed. M. styphelioides is a fmst-growing tree, ~18 m tall, found in swampy coastal sites in eastern Australia. It is more salt tolerant than M. quinquenervia and tolerates a wide variety of conditions including sandy, wet, saline, and heavy clay soils and some coastal exposure. *Mangrove Research Center, Forest Research Institute, Laguna 3720, Philippines.

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63 Australia, A. oraria grows close to the sea and A. crassicaTpa' in association with Casuarina equisetifolia, tolerates salt-laden winds on frontal sand dunes. Some Acacia species tolerate high levels of groundwater salinity. A. stenophyila is widely planted on salt-aflSected sites and A. redolens, A. ampliceps, A. xiphophyila, and A. translucens all grow in highly saline areas. Other species with good salt resistance include A. poribunda, A. pendula, A. pycnantha, A. Tetino~es, and A. cyclops. A. auriculiformis is suitable for coastal sandy sites subjected to windblown salt and areas with acid or alkaline conditions. In northern Australia, it grows on sand dunes with a soil pH of 9.0. In laboratory tests, it has tolerated highly acid conditions. This nitrogen-fixing species also grows well in seasonally waterlogged ar- eas. It has the disadvantage of brittle branches, which may break in ordinary winds. Other Species In India, twenty species of trees and shrubs were planted in a trial using saline water (EC = 4.0-6.1 dS/m) for irrigation. Of these, nine species were growing well after 18 months. The trees included Acacia nilol;ica, Albizzia [ebbed, Cassia siamea, Pongamiapinnata, Prosopis juli'7ora, Syzygium cumin), and Terminalia arjuna; shrubs were Adhatoda vasica and Cassia auTicuiata. On the basis of costs for establishing and maintaining these plants, and the selling price for firewood, it was estimated that the required investment would be recovered in five years. Pongamia pinnate, known as karanja, is found along the banks of streams and rivers and in beach and tidal forests in India. In West Bengal, a rotation of 30 years is used in Pongamia fue~wood plantations. Pongam oil, 27-39 percent of the seed, is used for leather treatment, soap making, lubrication, and medicinal purposes. An active component in the oil, karanjin, is reported to have insecticidal and antibacterial properties. Butea monosperma is a medium-sized (3-4 m) deciduous tree that grows in waterlogged and saline soils in tropical Asia. Its profuse spring canopy of scarlet flowers earn it the common name "flame of the forest." Its seeds and seed oil have anthelm~ntic properties. The Manila tamarind (`Pithecellobium duice`) is a hardy evergreen tree that grows to 18 m in the Indian plains and tropical Americas. A legume, it grows in poor and sandy soils and survives in coastal

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1~e Or ~ :~ ~ papa ~ ~ as, ~ ~ area ~ ~ 1 s goats ~ so ~ , ~ ;, ~ #~# 7~) ~1~> )# In C0~1 zo~otsis ~ to mater. ~., . ~ ^^ , ~, as to their ate to gram tlj agog c~ the shore no indications ofotb~er de~rab~ characteristic far use as fuels od; so~neoftbet~reessuggestedf~rpl~ting wberetbereisdb~ctexpos tosaltspray and sand (category 1) azel~ted in baby 9.

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65 TABLE 9 Seashore Trees. Species Common Name Native Area Albizia lophantha Cape Wattle Australia Araucaria excelsa NorfoLk Island Pine. Norfolk Island Banksia integrifolia Coast Honeysuckle Australia Barringtonia acutangula Sri Lanka Caesalpinia coriaria Divi-divi Venezuela Carallia integerrima Dawata India Casasia clusiaefolia Seven Year Apple Florida Catesbaea parviflora Lily Thorn Florida Cerbera odollam Gon-kadura India Conocarpus erectus Buttonwood Florida Corynocarp us laevigat us Karaka New Zealand Crataegus pubescens Mexican Hawthorn Mexico Cytissus proliferus Escabon Cana~y Islands Ficus rubiginosa Rusty Fig Florida Garcinia spicata India Grevillea banksii Australia Griselinia littoralis Broadleaf New Zealand Guettarda speciosa South Pacific Holoptelea integrifolia ~dian Elm ~dia Juniperus barbadensis Barbados Red Cedar West ~dies Leptosperm~m laevigatum Coast Tea Tree Australia Messerschrnidia argentia Beach Heliotrope Hawaii Metrosideros tomentosa New Zealand Christmas Tree New Zealand Myoporurn laeturn New Zealand Olearoa albida Tree Aster New Zealand Pinus halepensis Aleppo Pine Mediterranean P`ttosporum crassifolium Karo New Zealand Pomaderris apetala Tainui New Zealand Prunus spinosa Sloe Australia Pseudopana~c crassifolium Lancewood New Zealand Torrubu: longifolua Blolly Flonda Vitex lucens Punn New Zealand Ximenia americana Tallowwood West Indies SOURCE: Menninger, 1964. [IQUID FUElS* A number of countries are pioneering the large-scale use of al- coho! fuels. In Brazil, for instance, a country that imported more than 80 percent of its petroleum in 1979, a combination of factors- including the availability of land and labor, a need for liquid fuels, *See also Alcohol Fuela: Option~ for Developir~g Countries. To order, see p. 135.

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all of ~ ~ ~ ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' .................................. . ~Ada ~ ~- ~ Adds as J ~ an ~18 ^ ~ ^) gage 0.= ~ ~ ( 1~6~8~t 30 . : 121 ~ ~ ~ x ~ it. -~ ~ ~ _ ~ ^ , . ~ _~, ^ ~ ~ - ~ ~ - ~ - - ~ ~ ~ _ ~ _ 30~0 liters ~ Jade per beam em ~= ~ul~l~~ page =~ produce ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ liters ~ sag Per tag em day ~~16 is eq~iv~ent to nearly 8~ liters ~ acme per Bect~e em ye=. Because ~ the ace ~ Id Cacti, the sag Begins to ardent

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67 as soon as it is tapped; if it is not used quickly, fermentation will proceed to acetic acid. The principal disadvantages for nipa are the inaccessibility of its wild stands and the difficulty of working in the swampy terrain that the plant prefers. Cultivated stands may require land that would otherwise be suitable for rice. GASEOUS FUELS Although grown primarily for use as fodder (see p.75), kallar grass (Leptochioa fusca) has been shown to have potential as an energy crop by researchers at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology in Pakistan. As shown in Table 10, when kallar grass is used as a substrate for biogas production, the energy yield per hectare per year is estimated to be 15 x 106 kcal. REFERENCES AND SELECTED R1:ADINGS General Adappa, B. S. 1986. Waste land development for bioenergy need for forestry grant schemes and incentive policies. MYFOREST 22~4~:227-231. Ahmad, R. 1987. Saline Agrtculturc at Coastal Sandy Bait. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Barrett-Lennard, E. G., C. V. Malcolm, W. R. Stern and S. M. Wilkins (eds.~. 1986. Forage and Fuel Production from Salt Affected wasteland. Elsevier, Oxford, England. (Also published as Volume 5, No. 1-3, 1986, of Rcclamation and Reuegetation Research). Bangash, S. H. 1977. Salt tolerance of forest tree species as determined by germination of seeds at different salinity levels. Chemistry Branch, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan. Chaturvedi, A. N. 1984. Firewood crops in areas of brackish water. Indian Forester 110~4~:364-366. Goodin, J. R. 1984. Assessment of the Potential of Halophytes as Energy Crops for the Electric Utility Industry (Final Report). International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land Studies, Lubbock, Texas, US. Gupta, G. N., K. G. Prasad, S. Mohan and P. Manivachakam. 1986. Salt toler- ance of some tree species at seedling stage. Iranian Forc~tcr 112~2~:101-113. Jambulingam, R. and E. C. M. Fernandes. 1986. Multipurpose trees and shrubs on farmlands in Tamil Nadu State (India). Agroforc~try Sy~tcrru 4:17-32. Le Houerou, H. N. 1986. Salt-tolerant plants of economic value in the Mediter- ranean basin. Rcclamation and Rcocgetation Rcscarch 5:319-341. Lima, P. C. F. 1986. Tree productivity in the semiarid zone of Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 16:5-13. Malik, M. N. and M. I. Sheikh. 1983. Planting of trees in saline and water- logged areas. Part I. Test planting at Azakhel. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 33~13:1-17.

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Go: ~ ~ is! ~: >- ^~S~., Abet S J.> J: ~,~ ^~611 =3 ~ 3 0~^ 19~ ^~1-~)S ~~ far ~^ ~_ . ~ ~ Pat Cage d ~# ~ ~ ~io~ 95(3)~:l~2~sl~i~ ^s, J. As. 1~4. ~t^~t ~ tam ~ scam o~ ~ AIMS ate WAS Era Tr~. 3~ ~ 47~4~:~21~0~217. ^~s; a. a. 1984+ ~ AFT 4~lt#~ En: it 67~. ~= ~st~l~ Depart of alto Solute ^~; ~= O.. ~1979. age yield pote=~il~s~!!~=y~s hi a. Pp. 57475gI ~ id: ~ -I !~!:!~ ski! =~ ~ ~ Ala ~ Sash :~< ~ .~ ~ A ~ ~ ~ P~tel~ V. JO ~1987. Poppets ~ par g~er#~l6S 3~ arty flus ~ I~. -Ed ~ ~1~( 4)!318~20~. c~ as ~ ~t~ a. A.^_^ ~ ^.^! ^_ !_ ^ s . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ' I' ~ 'I e!~ou~t~ ^~ Satyr. ^~ f ~ ~ 35(1):22~5. > J. S. ~ ~lsi~pl,~ ~t~=l~lit~!~f~ss~^>t~a~r~g tags ala Arch patsy. ~ as ~ ~/ ~ 1:3~44~ am S. Q. =3 E. C. a. 1986. The Gas ~ =bselte (ace Age.) the ~l~l~^s of So ^~ ^~; ~~1~. ----a 16 :4!~56, ^$ ~ ^~% 1!(~2/$)~:125~1~: ^l~r~ P. C. a. C_eI1 ~d J. F. Of. 1~. E1~ peat of 32 pals (~1$~) ~ 1~:~. flare Act ~ ~~ ~!1~3 Isle ~s gag =3 ~ F. Pa*. ala Saw ace stir tag gas== =~0 (aim ~ fir S ~ a. ~o fig ~) >;_s s(^ ) ~go ~; b.> a. ^~ ma s. Idol. 1se6. car atom ~ ~ ~= . ~^ . ^ 55s~5 id: it. gads ~d it. Sag Pates f63~.! ~ ~ ~ ^~ ~i~ ~ ~1> aural, ~t=~. 11~; a. 1~6. Eat of ~o {~- ^ ^~- c~- /~ ~^ ~# -~ ~ the ma ~ ~ wet. Aim ~ ~ ~ 16~40. -- ~uth~. a. D. ~^ B. L. ~. /^\ ~- ~ ~:~ # at. ~ , ~ ~1~. . .-^ 1~4. use ~ ~ aver ~r ~.ng ~ ~- ^ ~ a. ~

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69 Ethodes, D. and P. FeLker. 1988. Mass screening of Pro~opu (Mesquite) seedlings for growth at seawater salinity concentrations. Corset Ecology and Managc- mer~t 24~33:169-176. Eucalyptus Biddiscombe, E. F., A. L. Rogers, E. A. N. Greenwood and E. S. DeBoer. 1981. Establishment and early growth of species in farm plantations near saline seeps. Australia?: Journal of Ecology 6:383-389. Biddiscombe, E. F., A. L. Rogers, E. A. N. Greenwood and E. S. DeBoer. 1985. Growth of tree species near salt seeps, as estimated by leaf area, crown volume and height. ~Awtralian Forcat Rcecarch 15~2~:141-154. Blake, T. J. 1981. Salt tolerance of eucalypt species grown in saline solution culture. Awtrahan Forcat Research 11~2~:179-183. Carr, S. G. M. and D. J. Carr. 1980. A new species of Eucalyptw from the margins of salt lakes in Western Australia. Nuyt~na 3:173-178. Chippendale, G. M. 1973. Eucalypts of the Wcetcrn Australian Goldficids. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia. D arrow, W. K. 1983. Provenance-type trials of Eucalyptw carnalduleneu and E. tcrcticorrm in South Africa and Southwest Africa: eight-year results. South African Forcatry Journal 124(3):13-22. Grunwald, C. and R. Karshon 1983. Variation of Eucalyptw camalduleneu from North Australia grown in Israel. Division of Forestry, Agricultural Research Organization, Ilanot, Israel. Jacobs, M. R. 1981. Eucalypts for Planting. FAO Forestry Series No. 11, Rome, Italy. Karschon, R. and Y. Zohar. 1975. Effects of Wooding and of irrigation water salinity on Eucalyptw camaldulen~ Dehn. from three seed sources. Leaflet No. 54, Division of Forestry, Agricultural Research Organization, Ilanot, Israel. Mathur, N. K. and A. K. Sharma. 1984. Eucalyptus in reclamation saline and alkaline soils in India. Indian Forcekr 110~1~:9-15. Muthana, K. D., G. V. S. Ramakrishna and G. D. Arora. 1983. Analysis of growth and establishment of Eucalyptw camalduleneu in the Indian arid zone. Annals of And Zone Research 22~1~:151-155. Sands, R. 1981. Salt resistance in Eucalyptw camaldulen~ Dehn. from three different seed sources. Division of Soils, CSIRO, Glen Osmond, Australia. Zohar, Y. 1982. Growth of eucalypts on saline soils in the Wadi Arava. La-Yaaran 32~1-4~:60-64. Casuarina Ng, B. H. 1987. The effects of salinity on growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of Casuarina cq~ctifolia. Plard and Soil 103:123-125. Turnbull, J. W. 1986. Casuarina oboe Pp. 244-245 in: Multipurpose Australian mecca and Shrubs. Australian Center for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia. van der Moezel, P. G., L. E. Watson, G. V. N. Pearce-Pinto and D. T. Bell. 1988. The response of six Eucalyptw species and Ca~uarsna obey to the combined effect of salinity and waterlogging. Awiralian Journal of Plar~t Physiology 15~3~:465-474.

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^~ J. IS., W. a. ~11~ ma B. J. Clay 1982. , , arm ~ =~ spears ~g sack ~ ^~ JOB_ =~(4):~1~12, Car B. T. 19~87~, ~ t =~ ~ the BERM arc. ~ -~ ~2~:6~. ^~< ~T; em ~~ ~; ~198~ ~ ~ ~~ ~8 . 1~ C=s~ ~\ A. ~1~0~. ~sSt~= of ~_6 ~ ~ Sourest ^~. Gem Of. A Baas C~> D. a. ~1988. Do =CeE ~ gem =~ alar aria rester ~- t~: ~-se=~# ad :~t^# ~ to ~ ~ :E~ ~0= ~:g to ~1~. ^ ~ ~^ ~1~5~(2)~:~1~1~1~46; ME :~ ~, ~ ~17(3)~:20~:!~13~. ~ ~ ^-- is ~: ~::^:~: ~ ~::: ~^ ~:- (: ~^ s ala ^ ~ 25~2~ In: ~ ~11^ () ~ ~_^ ~= ^~ P_, Nag ~$ ~ ~' ~ =.s^~^ ~_ _ ~^ ~ $t . ~ ^^^ ~ e ~ . . _ # E=(4): E1~34, ~S~^r~ S. C. ma at. a. S~^r s(^,], 1~9~. UP ~ ^~, ~ ~< US. . { ~, _ ~ _ _ ~ . ~ _.~_ . ~-^^.^ _ ~. ~ ~ ~ Nag ale ~ ^^E) IS, ~^ ~_ _~ _ _~___r - . ~ - - ---, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ d~ 33(4)~29#3ll, I.. 1 : a. a-. ma. We Am tag: ~ bag _ ~ Its. ~20:31~. ^ ., ~ ~ ~ _.^ ., . . ~ . ._ Sl~' B. ma s. D. Do. 1984. ^~ pueblo ~ sore S~ shade 1~ =~rtBe~ 1~Sla (~ go ma ~4~ Ago). ~ 4(3):235~238. . . ~_ _ ~ . _ _

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71 Acacia Turnbull, J. W. (ed.~. 1986. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. ACIAR Proceedings No. 16, Canberra, Australia. A`dhato`da vamca Chaturvedi, A. N. 1984. Firewood crops in areas of brackish water. Indian Forcatcr 110~4~:364-366. Singh, A., M. Madan and P. Vasudevan. 1987. Increasing biomass yields of hardy weeds through coppicing studies on Ipomoca fi~h~losa and Adhatoda basics with reference to wasteland utilization. Biological Wattle 19:25-33. Pongamia pinnate Krishnamurthi, A. (eddy. 1969. Pongamia. Wcalth of Incia VIII:206-211. CSIR, New Delhi, India. Lak~hmikanthan, V. 1978. lEcc Bornc Oil Scede. Khadi & Village Industry Commission, Pune, India. Bringi, N. V. and S. K. Mukerjee. 1987. Karanja seed oil. Pp. 143-166 in: N. V. Bringi (ed.) Non-lhd~onal Oileceda and 0~ of India. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, India. Butea monosperma Man3unath, B. L. (ed.~. 1948. Butca. Wcalth of India 1:251-252. CSIR, New Delhi, India. Lakshmikanthan, V. 1978. Free Bornc Oil Scede. Khadi & Village Industry Commission, Pune, India. Pithecellobium duice Krishnamurthi, A. (ed.~. 1969. Pitheccilobium. Wcalth of Irma VIII:140-142. CSIR, New Delhi, India. Nipa Palm Davis, T. A. 1986. Nipa palm in Indonesia, a source of unlimited food and energy. Indonesian Agricu~twal Research ~ Dcvelopmcnt Journal 8~2~:38-44. Hamilton, L. S. and D. H. Murphy. 1988. Use and management of nipa palm (Nypofrubeans, Arecacae): A review. Economic Botany 42:206-213. Paivoke, A. E. A. 1984. Tapping patterns in the nips palm. Principle 28:132-137. Pratt, D. S., L. W. Thurlow, R. R. Williams and H. D. Gibbs. 1913. The nipa palm as a commercial source of sugar. The Philippine Journal of Scicnec 8~6~:377-398. KalIar Grass Malik, K. A., Z. Aslam and M. Naqvi. 1986. Kallar Grass A Plant for Saline Land. Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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it: #A =# ~' At ~ ~ ~# ~ At, ~S 32: ~ ^,: a. ^~1~ ^~se~cr ~ ^~: Beat ~ 0~ Ciao, ~ ~ S.,s .,, at. at, ~p$~$ ha_ ~1 ~ Item S ~an, Cal =, ~1~, Ball - - - ,~ .. . ~ ~C~.~F. ~ TIC A~ A, 23,~Se~!~11~b Pal Ball, J. D: I ~$~<~ith ^~6, GPO ~ 4018$ ~~: ~ 3~1> ~= Dab a. Ss; Damp ~ ~$~ I ~ Jo^~ Joker 34~01, ~ Saws ~ ~:'~S~'+ PO' ~ ~$ ~ DISH:. Sage. J. S. ~ ~ ^=r~1 So1I SO ~ At ~ 13) ~001~ Bang. Isis - ~) CP ~1022~, ~1: ~, PEEL B~11. later Bars Char fir ~1~ Hat ~_> _1~, ~ =~? OS. F. SO ~ ~~e ~$~ ~ ~' #~# am art at (1~, PO BY 5427: Settle> ala. Colas St~> gear fir ~1 ~1~ Ha =~: to 62, 6~ ~: ~ D. ~$ 8~5 mails D~ ~ ~ ^~# ~ ~1> ~S ~1 Cheap ~C~e 51^ W. a. ~14, I, go. Tam Ce~r~ ~i Bead It JO#^r ~ 003$ ARIA. ~1 Zag. Defeat ~ ^~^ Alto ~E a. a. ~ Dad Dot Card ~e~ ^~ ~ Cane 113 SEW alar al ^~1> Calf A. S. J. angle DO ~ ~ ~, COST, PO ~ ~8, aura Veto Saw Cease: ~$ ~0$ ^~=

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73 B. H. Ng, Botany Department, University of Queensland, St. Lucia 4067, Australia. Paul G. van der Moezel, Department of Botany, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Australia. Rhizophora John S. Bunt, Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB No. 3, Townsville M.C., Queensland 4810, Australia. Chan Hung Tuck, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia. A. A. de la Cruz, Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, US. Francis E. Putz, Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, US. Klaus Rutzler, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, US. UNDP/UNESCO Regional Mangroves Project, 15, Jor Bagh, New Delhi 110003, India. Melateuca J. F. Morton, Morton Collectanea, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, US. Paul G. van der Moezel, Department of Botany, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Australia. Tamarix Chihuahua Desert Research Institute, PO Box 1334, Alpine, TX 79830, US. Acacia Division of Forest Research, CSIRO, PO Box 4008, Canberra 2600, Australia. Forestry Division, Agricultural Research Organization, Ilanot, Israel. Nipa Palm T. A. Davis, JBS Haldane Research Center, Nagercoil-4, Tamil Nadu, India. L. S. Hamilton, East-West Center, Honolulu, HI 96848, US. E. J. Del Rosario, BIOTECH, UPLB, Los Banos, Philippines. KalIar Grass K. A. Malik, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, PO Box 128, Faisalabad, Pakistan.