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Tables

TABLE 1  Minimum Nutrient Requirements of Dogs for Growth and Maintenance (amounts per kg of body weight per day)a

Nutrient

Unit

Growthb

Adult Maintenancec

Fat

   g

2.7

1.0

Linoleic acid

mg

540

200

Proteind

     

Arginine

mg

274

21

Histidine

mg

  98

22

Isoleucine

mg

196

48

Leucine

mg

318

84

Lysine

mg

280

50

Methionine-cystine

mg

212

30

Phenylalanine-tyrosine

mg

390

86

Threonine

mg

254

44

Tryptophan

mg

82

13

Valine

mg

210

60

Dispensable amino acids

mg

3,414

1,266

Minerals

     

Calcium

mg

320

119

Phosphorus

mg

240

89

Potassium

mg

240

89

Sodium

mg

30

11

Chloride

mg

46

17

Magnesium

mg

22

8.2

Iron

mg

1.74

0.65

Copper

mg

0.16

0.06

Manganese

mg

0.28

0.10

Zinc

mg

1.94

0.72

Iodine

mg

0.032

0.012

Selenium

µg

6.0

2.2

Vitamins

     

A

IU

202

75

D

IU

22

8

Ee

IU

1.2

0.5

Kf

     

Thiamin

µg

54

20

Riboflavin

µg

100

50

Pantothenic acid

µg

400

200

Niacin

µg

450

225

Pyridoxine

µg

60

22

Folic acid

µg

8

4

Biotinf

     

B12

µg

1.0

0.5

Choline

mg

50

25

a Needs for other physiological states have not been determined.
b Average 3-kg-BW growing Beagle puppy consuming 600 kcal ME/day.
c Average 10-kg-BW adult dog consuming 742 kcal ME/day.
d Quantity sufficient to supply minimum amounts of available indispensable and dispensable amino acids specified below.
e Requirement depends on intake of PUFA and other antioxidants. A fivefold increase may be required under conditions of high PUFA intake.
f Dogs have a metabolic requirements, but a dietary requirement was not demonstrated when natural ingredients were fed.

TABLE   2 Required Minimum Concentrations of Available Nutrients in Dog Food Formulated for Growth

Nutrient

Per 1,000 kcal ME

Dry Basis (3.67 kcal ME/g)

Proteina

   

Indispensable amino acids

   

Arginine

1.37 g

0.50%

Histidine

0.49 g

0.18%

Isoleucine

0.98 g

0.36%

Leucine

1.59 g

0.58%

Lysine

1.40 g

0.51%

Methionine-cystine

1.06 g

0.39%

Phenylalanine-tyrosine

1.95 g

0.72%

Threonine

1.27 g

0.47%

Tryptophan

0.41 g

0.15%

Valine

1.05 g

0.39%

Dispensable amino acids

17.07 g

6.26%

Fat

13.6 g

5.0%

Linoleic acid

2.7 g

1.0%

Minerals

   

Calcium

1.6 g

0.59%

Phosphorus

1.2 g

0.44%

Potassium

1.2 g

0.44%

Sodium

0.15 g

0.06%

Chloride

0.23 g

0.09%

Magnesium

0.11 g

0.04%

Iron

8.7 mg

31.9 mg/kg

Copper

0.8 mg

2.9 mg/kg

Manganese

1.4 mg

5.1 mg/kg

Zincb

9.7 mg

35.6 mg/kg

Iodine

0.16 mg

0.59 mg/kg

Selenium

0.03 mg

0.11 mg/kg

Vitamins

   

A

1,011 IU

3,710 IU/kg

D

110 IU

404 IU/kg

Ec

6.1 IU

22 IU/kg

Kd

Thiamine

0.27 mg

1.0 mg/kg

Riboflavin

0.68 mg

2.5 mg/kg

Pantothenic acid

2.7 mg

9.9 mg/kg

Niacin

3 mg

11.0 mg/kg

Pyridoxine

0.3 mg

1.1 mg/kg

Folic acid

0.054 mg

0.2 mg/kg

Biotind

Vitamin B12

7 µg

26 µg/kg

Choline

340 mg

1.25 g/kg

a Quantities sufficient to supply the minimum amounts of available indispensable and dispensable amino acids as specified below. Compounding practical foods from natural ingredients (protein digestibility ± 70%) may require quantities representing an increase of 40% or greater than the sum of the amino acids listed below, depending upon ingredients used and processing procedures.
b In commercial foods with natural ingredients resulting in elevated calcium and phytate content, borderline deficiencies were reported from feeding foods with less than 90 mg zinc per kg (Sanecki et al., 1982).
c A fivefold increase may be required for foods of high PUFA content.
d Dogs have a metabolic requirement, but a dietary requirement was not demonstrated when foods from natural ingredients were fed.
e Overages must be considered to cover losses in processing and storage.



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Page 44 Tables TABLE 1  Minimum Nutrient Requirements of Dogs for Growth and Maintenance (amounts per kg of body weight per day)a Nutrient Unit Growthb Adult Maintenancec Fat    g 2.7 1.0 Linoleic acid mg 540 200 Proteind       Arginine mg 274 21 Histidine mg   98 22 Isoleucine mg 196 48 Leucine mg 318 84 Lysine mg 280 50 Methionine-cystine mg 212 30 Phenylalanine-tyrosine mg 390 86 Threonine mg 254 44 Tryptophan mg 82 13 Valine mg 210 60 Dispensable amino acids mg 3,414 1,266 Minerals       Calcium mg 320 119 Phosphorus mg 240 89 Potassium mg 240 89 Sodium mg 30 11 Chloride mg 46 17 Magnesium mg 22 8.2 Iron mg 1.74 0.65 Copper mg 0.16 0.06 Manganese mg 0.28 0.10 Zinc mg 1.94 0.72 Iodine mg 0.032 0.012 Selenium µg 6.0 2.2 Vitamins       A IU 202 75 D IU 22 8 Ee IU 1.2 0.5 Kf       Thiamin µg 54 20 Riboflavin µg 100 50 Pantothenic acid µg 400 200 Niacin µg 450 225 Pyridoxine µg 60 22 Folic acid µg 8 4 Biotinf       B12 µg 1.0 0.5 Choline mg 50 25 a Needs for other physiological states have not been determined. b Average 3-kg-BW growing Beagle puppy consuming 600 kcal ME/day. c Average 10-kg-BW adult dog consuming 742 kcal ME/day. d Quantity sufficient to supply minimum amounts of available indispensable and dispensable amino acids specified below. e Requirement depends on intake of PUFA and other antioxidants. A fivefold increase may be required under conditions of high PUFA intake. f Dogs have a metabolic requirements, but a dietary requirement was not demonstrated when natural ingredients were fed. TABLE   2 Required Minimum Concentrations of Available Nutrients in Dog Food Formulated for Growth Nutrient Per 1,000 kcal ME Dry Basis (3.67 kcal ME/g) Proteina     Indispensable amino acids     Arginine 1.37 g 0.50% Histidine 0.49 g 0.18% Isoleucine 0.98 g 0.36% Leucine 1.59 g 0.58% Lysine 1.40 g 0.51% Methionine-cystine 1.06 g 0.39% Phenylalanine-tyrosine 1.95 g 0.72% Threonine 1.27 g 0.47% Tryptophan 0.41 g 0.15% Valine 1.05 g 0.39% Dispensable amino acids 17.07 g 6.26% Fat 13.6 g 5.0% Linoleic acid 2.7 g 1.0% Minerals     Calcium 1.6 g 0.59% Phosphorus 1.2 g 0.44% Potassium 1.2 g 0.44% Sodium 0.15 g 0.06% Chloride 0.23 g 0.09% Magnesium 0.11 g 0.04% Iron 8.7 mg 31.9 mg/kg Copper 0.8 mg 2.9 mg/kg Manganese 1.4 mg 5.1 mg/kg Zincb 9.7 mg 35.6 mg/kg Iodine 0.16 mg 0.59 mg/kg Selenium 0.03 mg 0.11 mg/kg Vitamins     A 1,011 IU 3,710 IU/kg D 110 IU 404 IU/kg Ec 6.1 IU 22 IU/kg Kd – – Thiamine 0.27 mg 1.0 mg/kg Riboflavin 0.68 mg 2.5 mg/kg Pantothenic acid 2.7 mg 9.9 mg/kg Niacin 3 mg 11.0 mg/kg Pyridoxine 0.3 mg 1.1 mg/kg Folic acid 0.054 mg 0.2 mg/kg Biotind – – Vitamin B12 7 µg 26 µg/kg Choline 340 mg 1.25 g/kg a Quantities sufficient to supply the minimum amounts of available indispensable and dispensable amino acids as specified below. Compounding practical foods from natural ingredients (protein digestibility ± 70%) may require quantities representing an increase of 40% or greater than the sum of the amino acids listed below, depending upon ingredients used and processing procedures. b In commercial foods with natural ingredients resulting in elevated calcium and phytate content, borderline deficiencies were reported from feeding foods with less than 90 mg zinc per kg (Sanecki et al., 1982). c A fivefold increase may be required for foods of high PUFA content. d Dogs have a metabolic requirement, but a dietary requirement was not demonstrated when foods from natural ingredients were fed. e Overages must be considered to cover losses in processing and storage.

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Page 45 TABLE 3   Factors for Consideration in Formulation of Dog Foods From Natural Ingredientsa Nutrient Factors for Consideration Fat Degree of unsaturation, antioxidants, vitamin E Carbohydrate Fiber, lactose, reducing sugars, processing, stage-of-life cycle Protein Energy content, digestibility, amino acid balance, processing, antinutrients, antitryptic factors Amino acids Availability; heat treatment in presence of reducing sugars reduces availability, especially of lysine; requirement for individual amino acids increases with increased dietary nitrogen. Minerals Ratios, source, availability Calcium Phytates, ligands, vitamin D Phosphorus Phytates, calcium, plant-animal Sodium, potassium, chloride High availability Zinc Phytates, calcium, plant-animal, fiber Copper Phytates, zinc Iron Source, availability, plant-animal Vitamins Processing, lipid content, source A Oxidation, toxicity D Toxicity, calcium level E PUFA, selenium B1 Losses in processing and storage, product pH, storage time and temperature, thiaminases B2 UV light B6 (Pyridoxine) Protein level in diet Niacin Tryptophan, low availability of plant sources Folate Processing losses B12 Plant versus animal proteins Choline Methionine, folate, vitamin B12, availability, fat a See text discussion for details relative to individual nutrients. TABLE   4 Calculated Metabolizable Protein and Metabolizable Energy Requirements of Dogs in Various Physiological Statesa Physiological State Protein Requirement (g metabolizable protein Wkg0.67 per day) Metabolizable Energy Requirement (kcal per Wkg0.67 per day) Weaning     Start (3 weeks) 8.1 400 Finish (6 weeks) 6.5 375 Early growth 6.0 353 Half grown 3.8 225 Adult (average) 1.5 132–159 Pregnancy, late 5.7 225 Lactation 12.4 560 a Adapted from Payne (1965). Calculated metabolizable protein equals food nitrogen minus fecal and urine N (retained N) × 6.25. Calculated metabolizable energy estimates were based on 4 kcal/g of dietary carbohydrate and protein and 9 kcal/g of dietary fat. These requirements are presumed to apply in a thermoneutral environment at moderate levels of activity. TABLE 5 Recommended Energy Needs of Adult Dogs at Maintenance (kcal ME/day)a Body Weight (kg) NRC (1974) (132 Wkg0.75) Thonney (1983) (100 Wkg0.88)b Thonney (1983) (144 + 62.2 Wkg)b 1 132 100 207 3 301 262 331 5 441 412 455 10 742 758 766 20 1,248 1,396 1,388 30 1,692 1,995 2,010 40c 2,099 2,569 2,632 50c 2,482 3,127 3,254 60c 2,846 3,671 3,876 a Intended to apply in a thermoneutral environment at moderate activity. b The contributions by Professor M. L. Thonney, Cornell University, to the development of these data are gratefully acknowledged, as is the assistance of Dr. C. A. Banta, Allen Products; Dr. Hanson Lee, Quaker Oats; and Dr. Lloyd Miller, Carnation, for supplying data on individual dogs. c Data based on feeding records are needed for dogs in these weight categories.

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Page 46 TABLE 6   Fat and Fatty Acid Composition of Feed Ingredients; Data Expressed on a Dry Basis (100% Dry Matter) Entry Num- ber Feed Name Description Interna- tional Feed Number Dry Matter (%) Ether Extract (%) Saturated Fata (%) Unsaturated Fata (%) Linoleic Acid (%) Arachidonic Acid (%)   ALFALFA Medicago sativa               01 meal dehydrated, 17% protein 1-00-023 92.0 2.5 0.3 0.7 0.43 – 02 leaves, meal dehydrated 1-00-137 93.0 3.1 0.3 0.9 0.56 –   ANIMAL                 tallow—see FATS AND OILS                 BARLEY Hordeum vulgare               03 grain 5-00-549 89.0 2.1 0.6 1.4 0.27 –   COCONUT Cocos nucifera                 oil—see FATS AND OILS                 CORN, DENT YELLOW Zea mays indentata               04 grain 4-02-935 89.0 4.5 0.9 3.7 2.05 – 05 distillers solubles, dehydrated 5-28-237 93.0 9.5 2.0 7.5 4.80 – 06 gluten, meal 5-28-241 91.0 8.4 1.5 6.8 4.21 – 07 grits by-product (hominy feed) 4-03-011 90.0 7.2 1.2 6.1 3.71 –   CRAB Callinectes sapidus               08 process residue, meal (crab meal) 5-01-663 92.0 1.9 0.5 1.3 0.35 –   FATS AND OILS               09 bran oil, rice 4-14-504 100.0 100.0 18.5 81.1 36.50 – 10 fat, swine (lard) 4-04-790 100.0 100.0 35.9 64.1 18.30 0.3 – 1.0 11 offal fat, poultry 4-09-319 100.0 100.0 39.1 60.9 22.30 0.5 – 1.0 12 oil, coconut 4-09-320 100.0 100.0 90.3 9.7 1.10 – 13 oil, corn 4-07-882 100.0 100.0 12.3 87.7 55.40 – 14 oil, fish, menhaden 7-08-049 100.0 100.0 40.0 60.0 2.70 20.0–25.0 15 oil, flax, common (linseed oil) 4-14-502 100.0 100.0 8.2 91.8 13.90 – 16 oil, pecan 4-20-525 100.0 100.0 6.9 93.1 30.60 – 17 oil, safflower 4-20-526 100.0 100.0 10.5 89.5 72.70 – 18 tallow, animal 4-08-127 100.0 100.0 47.6 52.4 4.30 0.0 – 0.2   FISH               19 solubles, condensed 5-01-969 51.0 12.8 5.7 7.1 0.39 –   FISH, MENHADEN Brevoortia tyrannus               20 meal mechanically extracted 5-02-009 92.0 8.4 4.8 3.6 0.12 –   oil—see FATS AND OILS                 FLAX, COMMON Linum usitatissimum               21 meal solvent extracted (linseed meal) 5-02-048 91.0 1.9 0.4 1.5 0.41 –   oil (linseed oil)—see FATS AND OILS                 MEAT               22 meal rendered 5-00-385 94.0 10.6 5.00 5.70 0.36 – 23 with blood, meal rendered (tankage) 5-00-386 92.0 8.8 4.40 4.50 0.30 –   MILK Bos taurus               24 skimmed dehydrated (cattle) 5-01-175 94.0 1.0 0.40 0.60 0.01 –   OATS Avena sativa               25 grain 4-03-309 89.0 5.1 1.20 3.90 1.67 –   PEANUT Arachis hypogaea               26 kernels, meal mechanically extracted (peanut meal) 5-03-649 92.0 7.3 1.70 5.50 1.36 –   PECAN Caya illinoensis                 oil—see FATS AND OILS                 POULTRY               27 by-product, meal rendered (viscera with feet with heads) 5-03-798 93.0 12.5 4.50 8.00 1.98 –   offal fat—see FATS AND OILS                 RICE Oryza sativa                 bran oil—see FATS AND OILS                 SAFFLOWER Carthamus tinctorius                 oil—see FATS AND OILS                 SKIM MILK—SEE MILK                 SORGHUM Sorghum bicolor               28 grain 4-04-383 90.0 3.2 0.70 2.50 1.20 – Table continued on next page

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Page 47 TABLE 6–Continued Entry Num- ber Feed Name Description Interna- tional Feed Number Dry Matter (%) Ether Extract (%) Saturated Fata (%) Unsaturated Fata (%) Linoleic Acid (%) Arachidonic Acid (%)   SOYBEAN Glycine max               29 flour by-product (soybean mill feed) 4-04-594 90.0 6.8 1.30 5.40 3.29 – 30 seeds 5-04-610 92.0 20.0 3.30 16.70 8.66 – 31 seeds, meal solvent extracted 5-04-604 90.0 1.1 0.03 0.08 0.61 – 32 seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted SWINE Sus scrofa fat (lard)–see FATS AND OILS WHEAT Triticum spp 5-04-612 90.0 0.9 0.30 0.60 0.39 – 33 bran 4-05-190 89.0 4.6 0.90 3.70 2.53 – 34 flour by-product, less than 9.5% fiber (wheat middlings) 4-05-205 89.0 5.2 1.00 4.10 2.79 – 35 grain WHEY Bos taurus 4-05-211 89.0 1.9 0.40 1.50 0.65 – 36 dehydrated (cattle) YEAST, BREWERS Saccharomyces cerevisiae 4-01-182 93.0 0.9 0.60 0.30 0.01 – 37 dehydrated 7-05-527 93.0 1.1 0.20 0.80 0.05 – a Calculated by assuming that ether extract was all triglyceride (except for alfalfa products). Thus, values were calculated by multiplying percent ether extract by fraction that was saturated or unsaturated. Alfalfa ether extract was presumed to be 40 percent triglyceride equivalent, and the percentage of ether extract was multiplied by 0.04 and then by the fraction that was saturated or unsaturated.

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Page 48 TABLE 7  Composition of Some Common Feed Ingredients of Dog Food, Excluding Amino Acids;  Data Expressed on a Dry Basis (100% Dry Matter) Table continued on next page

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Page 49 Table continued from previous page Table continued on next page

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Page 50 TABLE 7 Composition of Some Common Feed Ingredients of Dog Food, Excluding Amino Acids; Data Expressed on a Dry Basis (100% Dry Matter)–Continued Table continued on next page

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Page 51 Table continued from previous page

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Page 52 TABLE 7 Composition of Some Common Feed Ingredients of Dog Food, Excluding Amino Acids; Data Expressed on a Dry Basis (100% Dry Matter)—Continued Table continued on next page

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Page 53 Table continued from previous page Table continued on next page

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Page 54 TABLE 7 Composition of Some Common Feed Ingredients of Dog Food, Excluding Amino Acids; Data Expressed on a Dry Basis (100% Dry Matter)—Continued Table continued on next page

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Page 55 Table continued from previous page Table continued on next page

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Page 56 TABLE 7 Composition of Some Common Feed Ingredients of Dog Food, Excluding Amino Acids; Data Expressed on a Dry Basis (100% Dry Matter)—Continued Table continued on next page

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Page 57 Table continued from previous page

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Page 58 TABLE 8 Amino Acid Composition of Some Common Feed Ingredients of Dog Food; Data Expressed on a Dry Basis (100% Dry Matter)

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Page 59 TABLE 8—Continued Table continued on next page

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Page 60 TABLE 8 Amino Acid Composition of Some Common Feed Ingredients of Dog Food;  Data Expressed on a Dry Basis (100% Dry Matter)—Continued

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Page 61 TABLE 8—Continued

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Page 62 TABLE 9   Weight-Unit Conversion Factors Units Given Units Wanted For Conversion Multiply by lb g 453.6 lb kg 0.4536 oz g 28.35 kg lb 2.2046 kg mg 1,000,000. kg g 1,000. g mg 1,000. g µg 1,000,000. mg µg 1,000. mg/g mg/lb 453.6 mg/kg mg/lb 0.4536 µg/kg µg/lb 0.4536 Mcal kcal 1,000. kcal/kg kcal/lb 0.4536 kcal/lb kcal/kg 2.2046 ppm µg/g 1. ppm mg/kg 1. ppm mg/lb 0.4536 mg/kg % 0.0001 ppm % 0.0001 mg/g % 0.1 g/kg % 0.1 TABLE 10   Weight Equivalents 1 lb  =  453.6 g  =  0.4536 kg  =  16 oz 1 oz  =  28.35 g 1 kg  =  1,000 g  =  2.2046 lb 1 g  =  1,000 mg 1 mg  =  1,000 µg  =  0.001 g 1 µg  =  0.001 mg  =  0.000001 g 1 µg per g or 1 mg per kg is the same as ppm TABLE 11   Examples of Three Types of Commercial Foods (percent)a   Dryb Semimoistb Cannedb Corn 49.1 – – Corn gluten feed 19.0 – – Meat and bone meal 19.0 – – Meat and meat by-products – 32.8 65–80 Poultry and poultry by-products – – 10–20 Soybean meal 7.5 – – Soybean flakes, bran flakes – 32.3 – Textured soy protein, soy flour – – 10–20 Soluble carbohydrates – 21.0 – Animal fat 4.5 1.0 – Mineral mixc 0.8 3.3 0.5 Vitamin mixc 0.1 0.3 0.2 Antimycotic and emulsifier – 3.8 – Propylene glycol – 3.0 – Dried skimmed milk – 2.5 – a For examples of foods from semipurified and purified sources, refer to papers listed in References under Protein and Amino Acids, and Vitamins. b Courtesy of M. C. Stillions, Agway, Inc.; Gaines Nutrition Center, Gaines Foods, Inc.; and C. A. Banta, Alpo Petfoods, Inc. c Quantities to meet NRC requirements with sufficient overages to compensate for lack of availability and/or losses due to processing and storage.