Nutrient Requirements of Dogs.
Revised 1985

Subcommittee on Dog Nutrition
Committee on Animal Nutrition
Board on Agriculture
National Research Council

Washington,  D.C.   1985

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Nutrient Requirements of Dogs. Revised 1985 Subcommittee on Dog Nutrition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington,  D.C.   1985

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Page ii National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purpose of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This study was supported by the Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Additional support was provided by the Pet Food Institute. First Printing, June 1990 Second Printing, June 1991 Third Printing, May 1992 Fourth Printing, May 1993 Fifth Printing, August 1994 Sixth Printing, April 1996 Seventh Printing, April 1998 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.)  Subcommittee on Dog Nutrition Nutrient requirements of dogs. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Dogs—Food.   I. Title. SF427.4.N38   1985     636.7'085       85-2955 ISBN 0-309-03496-5 Copyright © 1985 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, phonographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the United States Government. Printed in the United States of America

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Page iii Preface This report is one in a series issued under the direction of the Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. It was prepared by the Subcommittee on Dog Nutrition and replaces the 1974 edition of Nutrient Requirements of Dogs. The report describes common signs of deficiency and of toxicity and discusses the basis for arriving at requirements for energy and for specific nutrients. This new edition contains recommendations for available nutrient content of representative commercial dog foods expressed on the basis of metabolizable energy content. This change should lead to greater uniformity in the nutritional adequacy of foods with varying caloric density and facilitate meaningful comparisons of such products. The subcommittee expresses appreciation to all individuals who contributed to this report, in particular, David H. Baker, Norlin J. Benevenga, and H. Meyer, and members of the Nutrition Task Force of the Pet Food Institute who reviewed the report and provided insightful comments and suggestions. Review of this report was accomplished through the advice and guidance of the members of the Committee on Animal Nutrition. The subcommittee is particularly indebted to Philip Ross and Selma P. Baron of the Board on Agriculture for their valuable assistance in the preparation of the report. The subcommittee is especially grateful to James E. Corbin, who served as coordinator for the Board on Agriculture in the review of this report. Subcommittee on Dog Nutrition BEN E. SHEFFY, Chairman Cornell University KENNETH C. HAYES Brandeis University JOSEPH J. KNAPKA National Institutes of Health JOHN A. MILNER University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign JAMES G. MORRIS University of California, Davis DALE R. ROMSOS Michigan State University

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Page iv Committee On Animal Nutrition DUANE E. ULLREY, Chairman, Michigan State University FRANK AHERNE, University of Alberta RICHARD E. AUSTIC, Cornell University JIMMY H. CLARK, University of Illinois RICHARD D. GOODRICH, University of Minnesota GEORGE E. MITCHELL, JR., University of Kentucky JAMES G. MORRIS, University of California, Davis ROBERT R. SMITH, USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service DALE R. WALDO, USDA, Animal Science Institute SELMA P. BARON, Staff Officer Board On Agriculture WILLIAM L. BROWN, Chairman, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. JOHN A. PINO, Vice Chairman, Inter-American Development Bank LAWRENCE BOGORAD, Harvard University ERIC L. ELLWOOD, North Carolina State University JOSEPH P. FONTENOT, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ROBERT G. GAST, Michigan State University EDWARD H. GLASS, Cornell University RALPH W. F. HARDY, Cornell University and BioTechnica International, Inc. ROGER L. MITCHELL, University of Missouri CHARLES C. MUSCOPLAT, Molecular Genetics, Inc. ELDOR A. PAUL, University of California, Berkeley VERNON W. RUTTAN, University of Minnesota JAMES G. TEER, Welder Wildlife Foundation VIRGINIA WALBOT, Stanford University CHARLES M. BENBROOK, Executive Director

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Page v Contents 1.  INTRODUCTION 1 2.  NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS AND SIGNS OF DEFICIENCY 2 Energy 2 Requirements for Adult Maintenance 2 Requirements for Growth 4 Requirements for Reproduction and Lactation 4 Requirements for Work and Adverse Environmental Conditions 5 Signs of Deficiency 5 Fat 5 Dietary Fat Concentration 5 Essential Fatty Acids 6 Recommendation 6 Signs of Deficiency 7 Carbohydrates 7 Protein and Amino Acids 9 Signs of Deficiencies 9 Amino Acid Requirements 9 Minerals 14 Calcium and Phosphorus 15 Potassium 17 Sodium and Chlorine 17 Magnesium 17 Iron 18 Copper 19 Manganese 20 Zinc 20 Iodine 20 Selenium 21 Fluorine 21 Elements Required at Trace Concentrations 21 Vitamins 22 Vitamin A 22 Vitamin D 23

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Page vi Vitamin E 25 Vitamin K 26 Thiamin 27 Riboflavin 29 Pantothenic Acid 30 Niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide) 31 Vitamin B6 33 Folacin 34 Biotin 35 Vitamin B12 36 Choline 37 Vitamin C 37 3.  WATER 39 4.  COMPOSITION OF INGREDIENTS OF DOG FOODS 40 International Nomenclature 40 International Feed Classes 40 International Feed Number (IFN) 40 Carotene Conversion 41 Data 41 Metabolizable Energy (ME) 41 5.  FORMULATED DIETS FOR DOGS 42 Dry Dog Foods 42 Semimoist Dog Foods 42 Canned Dog Foods 42 TABLES 44 REFERENCES 63 INDEX 77

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Page vii Figure and Tables FIGURE 1.  Relationship between metabolizable energy and adult body weight 4 TABLES 1.  Minimum Nutrient Requirements of Dogs for Growth and Maintenance 44 2.  Required Minimum Concentrations of Available Nutrients in Dog Food Formulated for Growth 44 3.  Factors for Consideration in Formulation of Dog Foods from Natural Ingredients 45 4.  Calculated Metabolizable Protein and Metabolizable Energy Requirements of Dogs in Various Physiological States 45 5.  Recommended Energy Needs of Adult Dogs at Maintenance 45 6.  Fat and Fatty Acid Composition of Feed Ingredients 46 7.  Composition of Some Common Feed Ingredients of Dog Food, Excluding Amino Acids 48 8.  Amino Acid Composition of Some Common Feed Ingredients of Dog Food 58 9.  Weight-Unit Conversion Factors 62 10.  Weight Equivalents 62 11.  Examples of Three Types of Commercial Foods 62

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