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WORKSHOP ON FUTURE AIRPORT PASSENGER TERMINALS Sponsored by the Building Research Board in cooperation with the Transportation Research Board National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1989

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National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages Dr. Frank Press is president of _ ~ O education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Limited supplies of this document are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20418. A charge of $3.00 for postage and handling must be prepaid. Printed in the United States of America

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BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD (1989-1990) RICHARD T. BAUM (Chairman), Consultant, Jaros, Baum and Bolles, New York, New York LYNN S. BEEDLE, University Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania GERALD L. CARLISLE, Secretary-Treasurer, International Union of Bricklayers & Allied Craftsmen, Washington, D.C. NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Consultant, Woolwich, Maine RAY F. DeBRUHL, Executive Vice President, Davidson and Jones Corporation, Raleigh, North Carolina C. CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT, President, EDAW, Inc., San Francisco, California DAVID R. DIBNER, Architect, McLean, Virginia ELISHA C. FREEDMAN, Consultant, Associated Public Sector Consultants & University of Connecticut, West Hartford, Connecticut DONALD G. ISELIN, USN, Retired, Consultant, Santa Barbara, California GEORGE S. JENKINS, Consultation Networks Inc., Washington, D.C. RICHARD H. JUDY, Miami, Florida FREDERICK KRIMGOLD, Associate Dean for Research and Extension, Virginia Polytechnic institute and State University, Alexandria, Virginia HAROLD J. PARMELEE, President, Turner Company, New York, New York Construction LESLIE E. ROBERTSON, Director, Design and Construction, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York, New York JAMES E. WOODS, William E. Jamerson Professor of Building Construction, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia

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APRIL L. YOUNG, Senior Vice President, N.V.R. Development, McLean, Virginia Staff ANDREW C. LEMER, Director HENRY A. BORGER, Executive Secretary, Federal Construction Council PETER H. SMEALLIE, Executive Secretary, Public Facilities Council PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate JOANN V. CURRY, Senior Secretary LENA B. GRAYSON, Senior Secretary 1V

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PREFACE This document is the report of a workshop held by the Building Research Board (BRB), in cooperation with the Transportation Research Board (TRB), on The Future Airport Passenger Terminal. The workshop was undertaken to explore how a national program of research on airport-passenger terminal planning and design can contribute to the efficient future development and operation of the locally owned and operated terminal facilities that make up a major element of the nation's air transportation system. The need for such research is thought to be substantial: Construction, renovation, and expansion of passenger-terminal facilities are occurring at a rapid pace at airports around the country and seem likely to continue in response to future demand for growth and introduction of new aircraft and of airport and airline technical operating and service systems. Airport capital needs over the next decade have been estimated by the Airport Operators Council Internationals to be at least $25 billion and perhaps much more, with some 37 percent devoted to passenger terminals. The balance of capital needs is estimated to be distributed about equally between airside (e.g., airfield improvements) and other landside (e.g., the roads and parking needed for efficient airport operations) facilities. The local or state authorities that own and operate airports make the largest share of these capital expenditures. These authorities must work with the airlines that serve the airport and that may effectively control or actually own individual terminal buildings. With the exception of passenger security and screening tApogee Research, Inc., The Nation's Public Works: Report on Airports and Airways, National Council on Public Works Improvements, Washington, D.C., May 1987. v

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within the terminal, the Federal Aviation Administration's role at airports is limited to regulation and participation in the funding of airside and limited landside facilities and activities and the provision of air traffic control services. No other federal agency has express responsibility for airports. There are no generally accepted standards for judging ser- vice levels in terminal buildings; and as a result it is difficult for operators, builders, airlines, and other users of these facilities to reach a consensus about the design and operating requirements for terminal buildings at each airport. Neither is there a clearly defined institutional focus in terms of the national interest, for the effective development of airport terminals as part of an effi- cient and safe air transport system. As a result, it is difficult for groups with diverse interests to come together in open forum to discuss these problems of standards, design, and operation. The workshop was thus a unique opportunity for the attendees to consider from many perspectives the needs and opportunities facing owners, operators, users, and designers of future airport passenger terminals. The workshop was not intended to be a comprehensive or exhaustive discussion of all of these needs and opportunities. Rather, the workshop was a first step. The workshop participants and members of the Building Research Board and Transportation Research Board hope that this report will motivate further action by government and the air transportation industry. V1 .

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CONTENTS 1. Introduction 1 2. Viewpoints on the Future Terminal Building 3 Large Airports and the Airport System, 3 Challenges Posed by Future Commercial Aircraft, 4 Can the Airport Terminal Keep Growing?, 7 Future Large-Scale Operators, 9 Airlines Need To Keep the Planes Moving, 10 The Terminal as a Festival Market, 10 Selling and Serving in the Marketplace, 11 Finding One's Way Through the Maze, 11 Space, Time, and the Terminal, 12 Moving the People, 12 Heavy Baggage, 13 3. Balancing Needs in the Future Airport Terminal 15 Passenger's Perspective, 15 Airline's Perspective, 19 Operator's Perspective, 20 4. Workshop Conclusions Appendices A Glossary, 27 B Attendees' Biographical Sketches, 35 V11

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