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Human Factors Research Needs for an Aging Population Sara J. Czaja, Editor Pane! on Human Factors Research Issues for an Aging Population Sara J. Czaja and Robert M. Guion, Cochairs Committee on Human Factors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington D.C. 1990

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Me arch Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other them the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a prorate, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged In scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science Ad technology Ed to their me for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to ad~risc the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank PASS ~ president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It ~ autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering program aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White ~ president a{ the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was e~tabl~hed in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the national Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Pre" and Dr. Robert White are chairman and Rice chairman, respectively, of the National Search Council. This work relates to Department of the Nary Grant N00014-85-6-0093 issued by the Office of Neural Research and funds from the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health and the Kellogg Foundation. However, the content does not necessarily rcEect the position or the policy of the go`rerIlment, and no official endorsement Would be inferred. The United States government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and ir- revocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliverer, perform, dispose of, and to authorize others so as to do, all or any portion of this work. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 89-69854 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04178-3 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 S067 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, February 1990 Second Printing August 1990 lard Printing May 1991

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PAN1:L ON HUMAN FACTORS RESEARCH ISSUES FOR AN AGING POPULATION SARA J. CZAJA (Cochair), Department of Industrial Engineering, State University of New York ROBERT M. GUTON (Cochair), Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University NANCY S. ANDERSON, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland HlI,DA KAHNE, Department of Economics, Wheaton College SIDNEY KATZ, Bio-architectomcs Center, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University DONAI`D W. KLINE, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary THOMAS K. LANDAUER, BeD Communications Research, Morristown, New Jersey M. POWELI, LAWTON, Philadelphia Geriatric Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania HERSCHEL W. I`ElBOWITZ, Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University TIMOTHY A. SALTHOUSE, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology HAROLD L. SHEPPARD, International Exchange Center an Gerontology, University of South Florida THOMAS B. SHERIDAN (ex officio), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID B.D. SMITH, Department of Human Factors, Institute of Safety, University of Southern California STOVER H. SNOOK, Ergonomics Division, Liberty Mutual Research Center, Hopkinton, Massachusetts HOWARD W. STOUDT, Department of Community Health Science, Michigan State University HAROLD P. VAN COTT, Study Director ELIZABETH F. NELSEN, Research Associate AUDREY E. HINSMAN, Senior Secretary ... 111

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COMMITTEE: ON lIl]MAN FACTORS DOUGLAS H. HARRIS (Chair), Anacapa Sciences, Inc., S ant Barbara, California PAUL A. ATTEWELL, Graduate School of Business Administration, New York University MOHAMED M. AYOUB, Institute of Biotechnology, Texas Tech University JEROME I. ELKIND, Xerox Corporation, Sunnyvale, California MIRL\N M. GRADDICK, AT&T Corporation, Basking Ridge, New Jersey OSCAR GRUSKY, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles JULIAN HOCHBERG, Department of Psychology, Columbia University THOMAS K. LANDAUER, Bell Communications Research, Morristown, New Jersey NEVILLE P. MORAY, Department of Mechancial and Industrial Engineering, University of IDinom RAYMOND S. NICKERSON, Bolt, Beranek & Newman I,aboratories, Cambridge, Massachusetts CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS, Aviation Research Laboratory, University of Illinois ROBERT C. WlI~L.IGES, Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University J. FRANK YATES, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan 1V

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Foreword The Committee on Human Factors was established in October 1980 by the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Edu- cation of the National Research Council. The committee Is sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Office of Scientific Re- search, the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Army Advanced Systems Research Once, the Army Hump Engineering Laboratory, the Federal Avia- tion Administration, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The principal objectives of the committee are to provide new perspectives on theoretical and methodological msues, to identify basic research needed to expand and strengthen the scientific basis of human fac- tars, and to attract scientists both within and outside the field for interactive communication and to perform needed research. The goal of the committee is to provide a solid foundation of research as a base on which effective human factors practices can build. Human factors issues arise in every Roman in which humans interact with the products of a technological society. In order to perform its role effectively, the committee draws on experts from a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. Members of the committee include specialists in such fields as psychology, engineer- ing, biomechanics, physiology, medicine, cognitive sciences, machine intelligence, computer sciences, sociology, education, and human fac- tors engineering. Other disciplines are represented in the working groups, workshops, Ad symposia organized by the committee. Each of these contributes to the basic data, theory, and methods required to improve the scientific basis of human factors. v

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Contents PREFACE 1 INTRODUCTION Background, 2 Overview, 4 2 HUMAN FACTORS PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH AGING Demographics, Ecology, and Sociology, 8 Home Activities, 13 Work Activities, 23 liar,rportation, 31 Communication, 42 Safety and Security, 44 Lemure Activities, 56 WHAT NEW KNOWLEDGE IS NEEDED? Distributional Data on Tasks, Situations, and Activities, 59 Problem Data, 60 Functional Norms, 60 Focused Human Factors Research Issues, 61 Design Principles and Examples, 62 V11 X1 1 7 59

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- ~ V111 4 RESEARCH GAPS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND PRIORITIES Distributional Data, 63 Tacit Analysis, 65 Basic Science of Aging and Behavior, 65 Priorities, 66 5 STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS 6 CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTENTS 63 68 70 71 82

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X11 PREFACE Background papers prepared by panel members, the deliberations of the workshop, and data drawn from human factors, psychologi- cal, and gerontological literature provide the basis for this report. The report describes the demographic, sociological, and ecological background of our aging society; identifies human factors problems associated with aging; summarizes current information about aging and human factors; and recommends directions for research. Because functional capabilities are a more accurate measure of the aging process than chronological age, the report identifies, de- scribes, and analyzes typical tasks performed daily In the home, community, and workplace by the population at large. These tasks include activities related to transportation, communication, home, workplace, leisure, and safety and security. The report then d~ scribes the functional capabilities required to perform those tasks. It compares the functional capabilities of older persons with the task demands and recommends a program of research and technology d~ velopment for the purpose of ameliorating the effects of functional changes that accompany the aging process. It ~ anticipated that these research recommendations to the NIA will assist the agency in developing a system~oriented human factors research agenda; they may also provide ~ basis for additional research and application of hump factors engineering data to the design of the homes, communities, and workplaces in which aging persons must function. In addition, the findings in this report may prove useful to the U.S. Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics ~d Space A~ninetration, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, ~d other government agencies that may wish to sponsor research on the aging population. We thank the pane} members for their participation in this study. We also extend appreciation to Harold P. Van Cott, Study Director, who participated in the workshop and contributed to the editing of this report; Elizabeth F. Neil~en, Research Associate, who coordi- nated the workshop and assisted ~ the editing of the report; Barbara Bodling, freelance editor, who improved the clarity and style of the report; and Audrey E. Hinsman and Carole A. Foote, who provided secretarial and adlriinistrative support. Robert M. Guion and Sara J. Czaja, Cochair Panel on Human Factors Research Issues for an Aging Population